#2 Introduction to Computer Organization

#2 Introduction to Computer Organization - Chapter 1...

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Chapter 1 Introduction
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2 At the most basic level, a computer is a device consisting of three pieces: A processor to interpret and execute programs A memory to store both data and programs A mechanism for transferring data to and from the outside world. 1.2 Computer Components
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3 Consider this advertisement: 1.3 An Example System MHz?? MB?? PCI?? USB?? L1 Cache?? What does it all mean??
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4 Measures of capacity and speed: Kilo- (K) = 1 thousand = 10 3 and 2 10 Mega- (M) = 1 million = 10 6 and 2 20 Giga- (G) = 1 billion = 10 9 and 2 30 Tera- (T) = 1 trillion = 10 12 and 2 40 Peta- (P) = 1 quadrillion = 10 15 and 2 50 1.3 An Example System Whether a metric refers to a power of ten or a power of two typically depends upon what is being measured.
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5 Hertz = clock cycles per second (frequency) 1MHz = 1,000,000Hz Processor speeds are measured in MHz or GHz. Byte = a unit of storage 1KB = 2 10 = 1024 Bytes 1MB = 2 20 = 1,048,576 Bytes Main memory (RAM) is measured in MB Disk storage is measured in GB for small systems, TB for large systems. 1.3 An Example System
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6 1.3 An Example System Measures of time and space: Milli- (m) = 1 thousandth = 10 -3 Micro- ( μ ) = 1 millionth = 10 -6 Nano- (n) = 1 billionth = 10 -9 Pico- (p) = 1 trillionth = 10 -12 Femto- (f) = 1 quadrillionth = 10 -15
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7 Millisecond = 1 thousandth of a second Hard disk drive access times are often 10 to 20 milliseconds. Nanosecond = 1 billionth of a second Main memory access times are often 50 to 70 nanoseconds. Micron (micrometer) = 1 millionth of a meter Circuits on computer chips are measured in microns. 1.3 An Example System
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8 We note that cycle time is the reciprocal of clock frequency. A bus operating at 133MHz has a cycle time of 7.52 nanoseconds: 1.3 An Example System Now back to the advertisement . .. 133,000,000 cycles/second = 7.52ns/cycle
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9 1.3 An Example System A system bus moves data within the computer. The faster the bus the better. This one runs at 133MHz. The microprocessor is the “brain” of the system. It executes program instructions. This one is a Pentium III (Intel) running at 667MHz.
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10 1.3 An Example System Computers with large main memory capacity can run larger programs with greater speed than computers having small memories. RAM is an acronym for random access memory . Random access means that memory contents can be accessed directly if you know its location. Cache is a type of temporary memory that can be accessed faster than RAM.
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1.3 An Example System … and two levels of cache memory, the level 1 (L1) cache is smaller and (probably) faster than the L2 cache. Note that these cache sizes are measured in KB.
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This note was uploaded on 06/14/2011 for the course COMPUTER 091 taught by Professor Rajivsir during the Summer '11 term at MIT.

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#2 Introduction to Computer Organization - Chapter 1...

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