Unformatted text preview: Overview-ch 9 Measuring unemployment Is unemployment measured
correctly? Why is there unemployment? Public Policies and job search Principles of Macroeconomics: Canadian Edition Identifying Unemployment “A job loss means a lower living
standard in the present, anxiety about
the future, and reduced self-esteem.”
the The problem of unemployment is usually
divided into two categories:
1 . The Natural Rate of Unemployment
2 . The Cyclical Rate of Unemployment Principles of Macroeconomics: Canadian Edition Identifying Unemployment Natural Rate of Unemployment represents
persistent joblessness that does not go away
on its own even in the long-run. Refers to the
amount of unemployment that the economy
normally Cyclical Unemployment refers to the year-toCyclical
year fluctuations in unemployment around its
natural rate. Deals with short-term fluctuations
associated with the ups and downs of the
Principles of Macroeconomics: Canadian Edition IDENTIFYING UNEMPLOYMENT
IDENTIFYING Describing Unemployment – Three Basic Questions: How does government measure the
economy’s rate of unemployment?
economy’s What problems arise in interpreting the
unemployment How long are the unemployed typically
without Measuring Unemployment Monthly Unemployment Rate is
calculated by Statistics Canada,
surveying nearly 60,000 randomly
selected households and categorizing
each adult (i.e. >15 years old) as:
1 . Currently employed (have a paying job).
2 . Unemployed but actively seeking a job.
3 . Not in the labour force (i.e. neither of
Principles of Macroeconomics: Canadian Edition MEASURING UNEMPLOYMENT
MEASURING Statistics Canada considers a person an adult if
he or she 15 years or older.
he A person is considered employed if he or she has
spent most of the previous week working at a paid
job. A person is unemployed if he or she is on
temporary layoff, is looking for a job, or is waiting
for the start date of a new job.
for A person who fits neither of these categories, such
as a full-time student, homemaker, or retiree, is
not in the labour force.
not Measuring Unemployment
Measuring The Labour Force is the number of employed
persons plus the number of unemployed. LF=
E+U The Unemployment Rate is:
u = U/(LF) “u” is the unemployment rate “U” is the number unemployed
U” “E” is the number employed “E+U” is the labour force Measuring Unemployment
Measuring The Labour-Force Participation Rate
illustrates the fraction of the population
(15+)that has chosen to participate in the
labour The Labour-Force Participation Rate is:
is: LFPR = (LF) / Population(>15)
Where LF= E+U DATA—2005 u=6.7%
u= U/LF US unemployment rate
US Canadian unemployment
Canadian Is Unemployment Measured
Correctly? In some cases, it is hard to distinguish
between a person who is unemployed and a
person who is not in the labour force.
person It is suggested that the “unemployment rate
is inaccurately low” because it doesn’t
– Discouraged workers Is Unemployment Measured Correctly? Underemployed are those who are working
part-time when they really want full-time
work. Discouraged Workers are those who have
given up looking for work and report that
they are no longer in the labour force,
when in fact, they would be willing to work
if offered a suitable, stable job.
if Duration of Unemployment
Duration Most of the economy’’s unemployment problem
is attributable to unemployed workers who are
jobless for long periods of time.
jobless The rate of unemployment is the product of the
number of jobless and their average duration of
– The average duration of unemployment (>14
weeks) increased over time from 35% in 1977 to
47% in 1996 and declined after that.
Unemployment rate (“u-rate”):
% of the labour force that is unemployed
u-rate= U/LF * 100
LFPR = LF/POP *100 LFPR
LFPR UNEMPLOYMENT AND NATURAL
RATE Why is there unemployment?
Why In an ideal labour market, wages would
adjust to balance the supply of labour and
the demand of labour, ensuring all workers
full employment. Four reasons why the ideal is missed:
– Minimum-wage laws
– Efficiency wages
– Job search Why is there unemployment?
Minimum-Wage When a minimum-wage law forces the
wage to remain above the level that
balances supply and demand, it
creates a surplus of labour.
surplus Why is there unemployment?
Price of Minimum-Wage Laws
Supply labour PM
Unemployment QD QS Demand
labour Why is there unemployment?
Unions and Collective Bargaining
Unions A union is a worker association that
bargains with employers over wages and
– A union is a type of cartel. The process by which unions and firms
agree on the terms of employment is called
collective Why is there unemployment?
Unions and Collective Bargaining
Unions A strike will be organized if the union and the firm
cannot reach an agreement.
– A strike makes some workers better off and other
workers worse off: (1) Striking workers worse off in
the short-run. (2) Rehired workers better off in the
long-run. By acting as a cartel with ability to strike or otherwise
impose high costs on employers, unions usually result
in above equilibrium wages for their members.
in Effects of unions At wages set above equilibrium:
– a very large number of qualified workers are
willing to accept the jobs
– there are very few jobs and seldom any job
openings for aspiring workers
– workers tend to hold out accepting other jobs
in hopes of one day landing the high-paying
Edition Why is there unemployment?
The Theory of Efficiency Wage
The Theory is that some firms can operate more
efficiently if wages are above the equilibrium
level. Even in the presence of an excess of labour,
firms may be more profitable by keeping
wages higher than equilibrium.
wages Unemployment caused by this theory is similar
to that caused by the minimum-wage laws and
unions. Why is there unemployment?
The Theory of Efficiency Wage
The Higher than equilibrium wages are set to promote
the following goals of the firm:
– Worker Health: Better paid workers eat better and
thus are more productive.
thus – Worker Turnover: A higher paid worker is less likely
to look for another job.
to – Worker Effort: Higher wages motivate workers to
put forward their best effort.
put – Worker Quality: Higher wages attract a better pool of
workers to apply for jobs.
workers Why is there unemployment?
Job Search Unemployment
Job Search unemployment results from the fact that it
takes time for qualified individuals to be matched with
available This unemployment is different from the previous
three types. It is not caused by a wage rate higher
than equilibrium. It is caused by the time spent in
searching or waiting for the “right” job.
“right” Search results from quits, layoffs, entry, re-entry.
quits, Situations of Job Search
Unemployment Search unemployment is inevitable
because the economy is always
changing. Situations that cause this type
of unemployment include:
– New entrants into the job market
– Re-entrants into the labour force
– Job quitters
Job Public Policy and Job Search
Public Government programs try to facilitate the job
search process in the following ways:
– Government-run employment agencies
Government-run training programs
Employment Insurance programs
Employment These programs can either increase or
decrease the time it takes the unemployed to
find new jobs.
find Public Policy and Job Search Government-run employment agencies: – Gives out information about job vacancies in order
to match workers and jobs more quickly.
to Government-run training programs:
– Aim to ease the transition of workers from
declining to growing industries and to help
disadvantaged groups escape poverty.
disadvantaged Public Policy and Job Search Unemployment Insurance: – Increases the amount of search
unemployment without intending to.
– Offers workers partial protection
against job loss.
– Partial payment of former wages for
a limited time period.
Conclusion Since unemployment can impose unusual
hardships on individuals and families, it is
an important concern of policy-makers. Public policies toward labour markets have
had conflicting and sometimes contradictory
effects. >>>Some policies may create U.
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- Unemployment, Measuring Unemployment