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JAPAN 1938 - Japan purchases a cyclotron from the University of California. At the end of the war, American service men find five cyclotrons. 1942 - Headed by Bunsaku Arakatsu, The Japanese Navy was diligently working to create its own atomic bomb, - "genzai bakudan" under a project that was dubbed F-Go [or No. F, for fission]. May, 1945 : German submarine U-234 surrendered to US forces found to be carrying 560 kilograms of Uranium oxide destined for Japan's own atomic program. The oxide contained about 3.5 kilograms of the isotope U-235, which would have been about a fifth of the total U-235 needed to make one bomb. August 12, 1945 Japanese scientist Nishina tested an atomic bomb near a small island off the coast of Korea. Witnesses said it produced a mushroom shaped cloud a thousand yards wide. Several vessels in the test area were vaporized while others farther away burnt fiercely. At the end of the war, Russia captured the secret Japanese military installations in Konan, Korea. Research shows that a atomic research and development center was run by Japan. GERMANY September 16, 1939 - Germany Army Weapons Bureau (Heereswaffenamt) recruits German scientists for a wartime uranium project. Organizing scientists are Nazi party members. September 26, 1939 - A second conference of the Germany Army Weapons Bureau meets to discuss Uranium fission. The Kaiser Wilhem Institute will now house Germany's secret military nuclear-fission project. December 6, 1939 : Heisenberg reports that enrichment of U235 is the only method of producing explosives "several orders of magnitude more powerful than the strongest explosives yet known." January 1940 : The first ton of highly purified uranium oxide is delivered to the German Army Weapons office by the Auer Company. May 3, 1940 : German troops in Norway seize control of the world's only heavy water production facility and step up production to supply the German fission program. September 1941 : Heisenberg meets with Niels Bohr in Nazi-occupied Copenhagen and brings up nuclear fission research. February 26, 1942: At a conference in Berlin to Nazi Leaders, Heisenberg explains that a reactor could be used in submarines, U235 can be used to make a bomb and that a reactor could generate plutonium. June 4, 1942 : A secret meeting with War Minister Speer and nuclear scientists including Heisenberg who describes atomic bombs as possible but not in the near future. UNITED STATES 1931 - Harold C. Urey discovers deuterium (heavy hydrogen) which is present (0.014%) in all natural hydrogen compounds including water. Later contributes to U235 isotope separation 1932 - James Chadwick proves the existence of neutrons. Not being repelled by similarly-charged particles, the neutron made an ideal "bullet" for bombarding other nuclei.
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January 30, 1933 - Adolf Hitler becomes chancellor of Germany. Due to anti-semitism, many prominent scientists flee central Europe. They felt Hilter's Germany would create the bomb first.
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