3_Chromosomes

Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry

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Lecture 3 Chromosome Diversity Structure of the chromosome Chromosome movements during the cell cycle Histones Histone modifiers and remodelers SMC Proteins (Structural Maintenance of Chromosome) Organization of genes and other information in chromosomes
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Reading 24 | pp. 947-954, 962-969 © 2009 W. H. Freeman and Company
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DNA is a Very Large Macromolecule The linear dimensions of DNA are much bigger than the virions or cells that contain them Bacteriophages T2 and T4 are about 0.2 μ m long and 0.1 μ m wide Fully extended T4 DNA double helix is about 60 μ m long DNA in the virion or cell is organized into compact forms , typically via coiling and association with proteins
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Each human cell has 2 meters of DNA Human beings have 124 billion miles of DNA # of Chromosomes Base Pairs/ genome # of cells E. Coli 1 4 million 1 Human 23 (46) 3.2 billion 10 14
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Chromosome A Chromosome consists of one covalently connected DNA molecule and associated proteins Viral genomic DNA may be associated with capsid proteins Prokaryotic DNA is associated with proteins in the nucleoid Eukaryotic DNA is organized with proteins into a complex called the chromatin
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Bacterial Genomes Usually Consists of One Circular Chromosome The E. Coli chromosome is 1.7 mm long E. coli measures 0.002 mm Notice few smaller circular DNA molecules ( plasmids )
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Genome Size and Number of Chromosomes Varies Among Species
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DNA, Chromosomes, Genes, and Complexity Note that despite the trends in the previous table, neither the total length of DNA, nor the number of chromosomes correlates strongly with the perceived complexity of the organisms Amphibians have much more DNA than humans Dogs and coyotes have 78 chromosomes in the diploid cell Plants have more genes than humans The correlation between complexity and genome size is poor because
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3_Chromosomes - Lecture 3 Chromosomes Genomes Chromosome...

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