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9_Transcription

Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry

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Lecture 9 RNA Transcription Transcription: DNA-dependent RNA Polymerase Initiation & Promotors Elongation Transcription Factors Termination & Release Key topics :
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Reading 26 | pp. 1021-1033 © 2009 W. H. Freeman and Company
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Overview of RNA Function Ribonucleic acids play three well-understood roles in living cells Messenger RNAs encode the amino acid sequences of all the polypeptides found in the cell Transfer RNAs match specific amino acids to triplet codons in mRNA during protein synthesis Ribosomal RNAs are the constituents and catalytic appropriate amino acid Ribonucleic acids play several less-understood functions in eukaryotic cells Micro RNA appears to regulate the expression of genes, possibly via binding to specific nucleotide sequences Ribonucleic acids act as genomic material in viruses
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Overview of RNA Metabolism Ribonucleic acids are synthesized in cells using DNA as a template in a process called the transcription Transcription is tightly regulated in order to control the concentration of each protein in the cell at optimal level Being mainly single stranded, many RNA molecules can fold into compact structures with specific functions Some RNA molecules can act as catalysts (ribozymes), often using metal ions as cofactors Most eukaryotic ribonucleic acids are processed after synthesis Elimination of introns; joining of exons Poly-adenylation of the 3’ end Capping the 5’ end
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Replication vs. Transcription
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