12_Protein Synthesis

Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry

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Lecture 12 Protein Translation The genetic code Synthesis of aminoacyl-tRNA Translation: RNA-dependent protein synthesis Key topics :
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Reading 27 | pp. 1075-1099 © 2009 W. H. Freeman and Company
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Protein Synthesis is a Very Complex Process Occurs in a large macromolecular assembly called the ribosome , which is made of many proteins and several RNA molecules into a functional ribosome Uses a large number of tRNAs that interact with mRNA Each tRNA is charged with one of the 20 common amino acids by 20 different aminoacyl tRNA synthetases Requires a dozen or more additional protein factors for initiation, elongation, and termination of translation Involves perhaps 100 additional enzymes that carry out a variety of modifications with many proteins
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Protein Synthesis Involves Five Stages Activation of amino acids Enzymatic synthesis of aminoacyl tRNA molecules Initiation of translation Binding of mRNA and N-formylmethionine to ribosome Elongation Binding of aminoacyl tRNAs to ribosome Formation of peptide bonds Termination and ribosome recycling Termination codon in mRNA reaches ribosome Folding and post-translational processing Catalyzed by a variety of enzymes
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Key Players in Protein Synthesis
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Composition of E. coli Ribosome Ribosome is a Non-covalent Assembly of Many Proteins and Few RNA Molecules
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