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Application Week 3 Questions

Application Week 3 Questions - Application Week 3 Questions...

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Application Week 3 Questions 11-06-09 1. Assess the potential risk of earthquakes, volcanoes (above ground or underwater), and tsunamis in your area A. Earthquakes: Earthquakes are generally not considered a major hazard in Michigan, other states have had so many problems with this hazard that very detailed techniques have been developed to estimate earthquake risks. Each area of the country has been sorted into general zones of earthquake risk. These zones are expressed in terms of a probability that significant ground movements will be felt. (p. p 159; Appendix B – Detailed Techniques for a Hard Analyse) Michigan has a comparatively low risk of experiencing damaging ground movements. Many designers and developers did not take into consideration the possiblilty that an earthquake might occur. Some of Michigan's communities may actually be quite vulnerable to earthquake effects—especially Michigan's underground utilities. Most earthquake risk analyses in Michigan will start by identify facilities or infrastructure that might be at-risk, and then have engineers calculate the degree of actual vulnerability to those facilities. Engineers should be able to estimate potential damages and calculate structural reinforcement costs to see if earthquake mitigation measures are economically justifiable. (Appendix B – Detailed Techniques for a Hard Analyse) The earliest record of earthquake tremors felt in Michigan Territory (statehood came in 1837) were from the great series of shocks centered near New Madrid, Missouri in 1811 and 1812. As many as nine tremors from the New Madrid earthquake series were reported felt distinctly at Detroit. (Michigan Earthquake History, 2009) On October 31, 1895, Charleston, Missouri experienced a major earthquake. Considered the severest shock in the central U.S. region since the 1811 - 1812 earthquakes, the 1-million-square-mile felt area included parts of Michigan. A moderate earthquake of intensity V was felt at Menominee on March 13, 1905. (Michigan Earthquake History, 2009) B. Volcanoes: (Weather Almanac Vol. 1 Volcanic Activity, 2009) Volcanic activity has played a dominant role in shaping the face of Earth. Much of the natural beauty of the land, its mineral wealth, and the fertility of the soil is owed to volcanism, especially in the western states. Volcanoes are built by the accumulation of their own eruptive products: lava, bombs, ash, and dust. Usually the volcano is a conical hill or mountain around a vent (the term "volcano" also is applied to the opening or vent) that connects with reservoirs of molten rock (known as magma) below Earth's surface. Forced. Larger fragments (bombs and cinders) fall back around the vent. Some of the finer materials (ash and dust) drift down and are blown by the wind to eventually fall to the ground many miles away.
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