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Unformatted text preview: 1 The first gives detailed advice on techniques for calculating risks and expected annual costs/damages from different hazards. (Not all hazards have established and objective techniques for evaluation, but this section will address the sort of techniques that could be used, while more detailed methods are being developed by researchers.) The second section provides much information from FEMA guidance materials that can be used to further estimate disaster costs. Instead of focusing on techniques for a hazard, the second section will describe general methods of quantifying the costs of utility interruption, emergency response, evacuations and displacement, et cetera. Methods of Advanced Risk Assessment As mentioned previously, the Risk and Vulnerability Assessments involve estimating the probability of harm and also the severity of harm from each hazard that is possible in your community. Hazards that are considered insignificant can be addressed with merely a cursory analysis in your local plan. Hazards that have the real potential to cause disruption, damage, harm, or loss of life should be considered significant, and should be 152 2/03 described more fully in your plan. The degree of risk should be estimated for significant hazards. There are different ways to measure risk, but available measures can be adjusted to allow them to be compared to each other. Earthquakes Although earthquakes are generally not considered a major hazard in Michigan, other states have had so many problems with this hazard that very detailed techniques have been developed to estimate earthquake risks. Each area of the country has been assessed by geologists (according to types of bedrock, fault line proximity, and probably other factors) and sorted into general zones of earthquake risk. These zones are expressed in terms of a probability that significant ground movements will be felt. Michigan has a comparatively low risk of experiencing damaging ground movements. Because of this low risk, however, many designers and developers did not take into consideration the possibility that an earthquake might occur. Some of Michigan's communities may actually be quite vulnerable to earthquake effectsespecially Michigan's underground utilitiesif certain developed areas were not designed to withstand any ground movements. Most earthquake risk analyses in Michigan will start by identify facilities or infrastructure that might be at-risk, and then have engineers calculate the degree of actual vulnerability to those facilities. Engineers should be able to estimate potential damages and calculate structural reinforcement costs to see if earthquake mitigation measures are economically justifiable....
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This note was uploaded on 06/14/2011 for the course PHSC 1001 taught by Professor Gabrielclay during the Fall '09 term at Walden University.
- Fall '09