An_Introduction_to_Logic

An_Introduction_to_Logic - An Introduction to Logic...

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An Introduction to Logic Aristotle was the first philosopher to discover or use the proper rules of reasoning. He says that the best way to understand the nature and uses of logic is to understand the Formula: T + V = S In this formula, the letter T stands for the truth of the premises of an argument. The V stands for a “Valid” form of the argument. The letter S means “Soundness.” Philosophical arguments are either Sound or Unsound. A Sound Argument is when the premises are True and the form is Valid. An Unsound Argument is one where either one or more of the premises is/are not true, or the form of the argument is not valid. Before applying these principles to an argument, we must first talk about the parts of an argument. A philosophical, logical argument is made up of two parts. The first part are the premises, and the second part is the conclusion. Consider the following example: Argument Number 1. All men are mortal. Socrates is a man Therefore, Socrates is mortal. The first line of this argument is the “Major Premise.” (A Major premise is one that gives the most information. The second line of the above argument is the minor premise, the one that does not give the most information. Thus, the above argument has two premises, one major and one minor. The third line in the above argument is the “Conclusion.” A conclusion is usually preceded by words like “therefore,” or “it follows that.” From all of this, we learn that Argument Number 1 consists of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion. In Argument Number 1 both the major and the minor premises are True. Thus, we have the first part of our formula: T + V = S This brings us to the second part of the formula, Valid Arguments. Aristotle
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pointed out that most Valid arguments are in one of Four different forms. These forms,
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