Hearing and Speech Voice Disorders

Hearing and Speech Voice Disorders - Voice Disorders...

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Voice Disorders 12/13/09 12:06 PM Phonation: rubber band example - Folds close - Pressure builds (subglottal air pressure) 3 components of voice: pitch, intensity, quality Pitch: - determined by vibration of the vocal cords o Smaller, thinner vc = higher pitch o Bigger, thicker vc = lower pitch - Pitch change occurs when there is a change in vc length & tension - Optimal pitch is dictated by vocal cord structure - Speakers usual pitch is called the habitual pitch - Pitch is measured in hertz Hz - Frequency of vibration o In men: 180/sec o In woman: 220/sec Intensity: - Loudness - Increases with increased subglottic air pressure from the lungs - Measured in decibels dB Quality:
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- Clarity of vocal productions - Biggest group of problems - Need complete contact of vc to have best quality - Breathy, hoarse, harsh describe bad voice quality Etiologies: - Organic nodules, polyps, contact ulcers, laryngitis, laryngeal cancer - Neurological damage to brain or nerves that control vocal folds, ex: stroke, head injury, brain tumor, Parkinson’s disease - Functional no observable disease or structural defect, ex: psychosocial, stress & anxiety Nodules: - Anterior of vocal cords - Bilateral - Hard - Caused by habitual misuse or abuse of voice - Harsh and breathy voice - Not painful Polyps: - Anterior of vocal cords - Unilateral - Like blisters, soft & fluid filled - Usually caused by single event that doesn’t heal - Harsh and breathy voice
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- Excessive throat clearing - Not painful Contact Ulcers: - Posterior of vocal cords - Usually bilateral - Painful - Open sores - Caused by hard glottal attack or vocal folds being slammed together, acid reflex also - Can be cause by incubation during surgery Laryngitits: - Inflammation of vocal cord tissue, usually part of viral or bacterial infection - Can be caused by stomach reflex - Can be made worse if you use your voice Treatment for organic voice disorders: - Speech therapy decrease vocal abuse - Polyps surgically removed Neurological disorders: - Symptoms poor vocal cord movement - Causes stroke, head injury, brain tumor, Parkinson’s disease, paralysis of VC in different positions - Adduction cannot close VC, adduction paralysis = cords open - Abduction cannot open VC, abduction paralysis = cords closed - Hyperadduction spastic dysphonia (pushing your voice) - Hypoadduction Parkinson’s disease Resonance: - Determined by the changing shapes of the oral & nasal cavities - Disorders of resonance occur when opening b/w 2 cavities occur & the soft palate or velum is not working & cannot close 1 cavity off from the other - Hypernasal too much nasality - Hyponasal not enough nasality ex: when someone has a cold SLP’s role is to evaluate the voice, case history, perceptual evaluation, instrumental
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This note was uploaded on 06/15/2011 for the course HESP 202 taught by Professor Bob during the Fall '09 term at Maryland.

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Hearing and Speech Voice Disorders - Voice Disorders...

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