Essentials of Geology (10th Edition)

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Essentials of Geology Minerals: Building Blocks of Rocks Chapter 2 Quartz (SiO 2 )
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Where would we be without Where would we be without minerals? minerals? no rocks (are mixtures of minerals) no metals for cars, buildings, batteries, etc. no pencils to take Geology tests (graphite) no teeth or bones (apatite) no gold or gems for jewelry no salt (halite) no ice cubes!
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Minerals Building blocks of rocks Definition of a mineral Naturally occurring Inorganic solid Ordered internal molecular structure Definite chemical composition Definition of a rock A solid aggregate or mass of minerals
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A Rock is a consolidated mixture of one or more type of mineral Rocks can be composed of one type of mineral, or many (Ex. marble vs. granite)
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Composition of minerals Elements Basic building blocks of minerals Over 100 are known (92 naturally occurring) Atoms Smallest particles of matter Retain all the characteristics of an element
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Atom : the smallest possible part of matter that still retains the characteristics of an element. Element : a large collection of electrically neutral atoms that all have the same number of protons (i.e., the same atomic number). Ex. The element carbon ( C )
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The periodic table
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Composition of minerals Atomic structure Central region called the nucleus Consists of protons (positive charges) and neutrons (neutral charges) Electrons Negatively charged particles that surround the nucleus Located in discrete energy levels called shells
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protons + neutrons = nucleus + electrons = atom alternatively nucleus + electron shells = atom
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Idealized structure of an atom
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Composition of minerals Chemical bonding Formation of a compound by combining two or more elements Ionic bonding Atoms gain or lose outermost ( valence ) electrons to form ions Ionic compounds consist of an orderly arrangement of oppositely charged ions
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Cations are atoms with fewer electrons than protons, and thus have a positive electrical charge (Ex. Sodium , Na +1 ) Anions are atoms with more electrons than protons, and thus have a negative electrical charge (Ex. Chlorine , Cl -1 )
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Halite (NaCl) An example of ionic bonding
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Composition of minerals Covalent bonding Atoms share electrons to achieve electrical neutrality Covalent compounds are generally stronger than ionic bonds Both ionic and covalent bonds typically occur in the same compound (Bonds are seldom 100 percent ionic or covalent in character)
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Covalent bonding Sharing of valence electrons
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Composition of minerals Other types of bonding Metallic bonding Valence electrons are free to migrate among atoms Weaker and less common than ionic or covalent bonds
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Composition of minerals Isotopes and radioactive decay Mass number is the sum of neutrons plus protons in an atom An isotope is an atom that exhibits variation in its mass number Some isotopes have unstable nuclei that emit particles and energy in a process known as radioactive decay
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This note was uploaded on 06/15/2011 for the course GEL 111 taught by Professor Vandevelde during the Spring '11 term at Craven CC.

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Ch 02 - Essentials of Geology Minerals: Building Blocks of...

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