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Essentials of Geology (10th Edition)

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Metamorphic Rocks begins with an examination of the process of metamorphism, including a discussion of the agents of metamorphism—heat, pressure, and chemical activity. After presenting how metamorphism alters the texture and mineralogy of a rock, the most common foliated and nonfoliated rocks are examined. The chapter closes with an investigation of contact and regional metamorphism, along with a discussion of how the texture and mineralogy of a rock reflect the intensity or degree of metamorphism. Learning Objectives After reading, studying, and discussing the chapter, students should be able to: Briefly discuss the concept of metamorphism and metamorphic rocks. List and discuss the agents of metamorphism, including heat, pressure, and chemical fluids. Briefly discuss the importance and origin of metamorphic textures. Compare and contrast the various types of foliated and nonfoliated metamorphic textures. List and briefly define the common metamorphic rocks, both foliated and nonfoliated. Briefly discuss the various metamorphic environments found on Earth. Explain the concept of metamorphic zones, including index minerals and metamorphic grade. Chapter Outline ___________________________________________________________________ I. Metamorphism A. The transformation of one rock into another by temperatures and/or pressures unlike those in which it formed B. Metamorphic rocks are produced from 1. Igneous rocks 2. Sedimentary rocks 3. Other metamorphic rocks C. Progresses incrementally from low- grade to high-grade D. During metamorphism the rock must remain essentially solid E. Metamorphic settings 1.Contact or thermal metamorphism— driven by a rise in temperature within the host rock 2.Hydrothermal metamorphism— chemical alterations from hot, ion-rich water 3.Regional metamorphism a.Occurs during mountain building b.Produces the greatest volume of metamorphic rock c.Rocks usually display zones of contact and/or hydrothermal metamorphism II. Agents of Metamorphism A. Heat 1. The most important agent 2.
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