Test 1 Notes

Essentials of Geology (10th Edition)

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Fractional Crystalization? Whenever magma cools, the higher temps will cool from specific gravity Phaneritic Visible grains Aphanitic Crystals less than 1mm Pegmatitic Extremely coarse-grained Granite. Is it extrusive or intrusive? Felsic, mafic, or intermediate? Intrusive; felsic Rhyloite Extrusive; felsic Andesite Extrusive; intermediate Diorite Intrusive; intermediate Basalt Extrusive; mafic Grabbro Intrusive; mafic Scoria Extrusive; mafic Obsidian Extrusive; mafic Pumice Extrusive; felsic What are the six types of volcanic tephra? Ash, cinder, breccia, lapilli, bombs, tuff What is Moh's Hardness Scale? Talc, Gypsum, Calcite, Fluorite, Apatite, Orthoclase, Quartz, Topaz, Corundum, Diamond
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What is the five-part definition of a mineral? Inorganic, solid, naturally formed, definite chemical composition, definite crystal lattice What are the mineral properties? Breakage, luster, color, crystal form, crystal habit, hardness, specific gravity How are Rhyolitic Lavas different than Basaltic Lavas? Rhyolitic lavas are felsic. Lower melting point, higher viscosity, more explosive When and how do minerals grow? Magma cooling, precipitation, and metamorphosis List 4 minerals with the same chemical composition as quartz? Chert, Flint, Jasper, Calchedony Example of Silicates Quartz Example of Carbonate Calcite Example of Oxide? Magnetitie Example of Sulfide Pyrite Example of Sulfate Gypsum Example of Halide Halite Example of Natural Element Gold Earth System, ~4.5 Ga Time when: Earth still largely molten Orpheus glanced Earth to create Earth System, ~4.3 Ga Time when:
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Disk of debris around earth Moon premature, still close to Earth, heavily cratered Earth System, ~4.05 Ga Time when: Volcanic eruptions active dark, smoggy, poisonous atmosphere w/ intense lightning storms Small land areas, mostly ocean w/ strong tides Earth System, ~4.0 Ga Time when: first islands forming all land volcanogenic (hotspots or sub. zones) dark, smoggy atmosphere Venus Avg temp: 477° C Atm pressure: 90x Earth Atm comp: CO 2 = 98%; N 2 = 1.9% closed system (equilibrium reached) o lost heat via small, abundant volcanoes Mars Avg temp: (57°) C Atm pressure: 0.064x Earth Atm comp: CO 2 = 95%; N 2 = 2.7% closed system (equilibrium reached) o lost heat via few, massive volcanoes Earth Avg temp: 13° C Atm pressure: 1.0 Atm comp: N 2 = 78%; O 2 = 21%; CO 2 = 0.03% open system (equilibrium not reached) o heat transfer = mainly convection Three (Four) Laws of Thermodynamics 0. Heat will never flow between two bodies of identical temperature 1. Energy is neither created nor destroyed 2. Useful energy in a closed system always declines (entropy always increases) 3. Energy can approach but never attain absolute zero (would require heat transfer with a body somewhere colder than absolute zero => impossible) Thermodynamic entropy
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for a closed system, the quantitative measure of the thermal energy not available to do work. higher energy => more uniform heat distribution
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This note was uploaded on 06/15/2011 for the course GEL 111 taught by Professor Vandevelde during the Spring '11 term at Craven CC.

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Test 1 Notes - Fractional Crystalization? Whenever magma...

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