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Chapter 2 Outline


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CHAPTER 2 PSYCHOLOGICAL HEALTH I. Psychological Health A. Psychological health is dynamic, becoming more positive or negative as one responds to a constantly changing environment. B. Many people maintain positive degrees of psychological health throughout their lives. C. “What are the characteristics of psychologically healthy people?” II. The Basics of Psychological Health A. Neurotransmitters are chemicals that nerves release to transmit information between nerve cells. B. Figure 2-1 illustrates the nervous system. C. Emotions are ways of communicating moods to others. Basic emotions often are referred to as feelings. D. Altering neurotransmitter levels in the brain can profoundly affect behaviors, thoughts, and feelings. E. Personality Development 1. Personality is a set of distinct thoughts and behaviors that characterize the way one responds to situations. 2. Biological Influences a. Heredity is the transmission of biological information, coded within genes, from parents to offspring. b. Temperament is the predictable way one responds to the environment. c. Although much of a person’s temperament is inborn, one can change it to some extent. d. Describe your basic temperaments. For example, are you shy or outgoing? 3. Social and Cultural Influences a. Interactions with parents and others influence one’s psychological development. b. Displaying the appropriate emotional responses in a particular social situation is a characteristic of a psychologically healthy adult. F. Theories of Personality Development 1. Sigmund Freud’s Framework of Personality a. Freud described how the unconscious mind influences behavior.
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b. Defense mechanisms are ways of thinking and behaving that reduce or eliminate anxious or guilty feelings. c. People commonly employ defense mechanisms such as denial or projection. d. Review common defense mechanisms. e. Society establishes moral values, rules for good and bad behavior that prevent people from gratifying their desires. 2. Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages of Development a. Erikson emphasized the role of social influences in shaping personality. b. An individual progresses through eight psychosocial stages during his or her lifetime. c. Each stage has major social crises or conflicts that need to be resolved or managed if one is to achieve a sense of psychological well-being. 3. Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs a. According to Maslow, people behave in response to their values rather than their unconscious drives. b. Maslow’s concepts form a hierarchy of five human needs from the most basic biological requirements for survival to the one most essential for psychological fulfillment and self-actualization. c. To become self-actualized, one must meet each supportive level of
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