Chapter 3 Outline


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CHAPTER 3 STRESS AND ITS MANAGEMENT I. What Is Stress? A. Stress is a complex series of psychological and physiological (physical) reactions that occur as a person responds to a threatening or demanding situation. B. Each person may view and appraise a particular situation differently. C. For example, the same situation can have positive, negative, or neutral consequences for different people. D. Stressors 1. Stressors are situations that create stress by placing physical or psychological demands on an individual. 2. Psychological stressors include managing emotions and handling difficult social situations and dealing with troublesome thoughts and relationships. 3. Physiological (physical) stressors include exposure to extreme temperature changes, illness and injury, exercise, and exposure to pollutants. 4. Distress refers to stressful events that are difficult to control and have negative or unwanted outcomes. 5. Eustress refers to stressful events that have beneficial or desirable outcomes. 6. Regardless of the outcomes, stress has similar physical effects on the body. II. Stress Responses A. Physical Responses to Stress 1. The adrenal glands of the endocrine system produce and release stress hormones. 2. Stress hormones include cortisol, epinephrine (adrenaline), and norepinephrine. 3. Stress hormones prepare the body to respond in threatening situations (the fight-or-flight” response). 4. Review acute physical adaptations the body makes in response to stressful situations. 5. The general adaptation syndrome (GAS) describes the body’s adaptations to stress. 6. Review each stage of the GAS B. Psychological Responses to Stress 1. Individuals experiencing stress are more likely to report psychological symptoms such as frustration, anxiety, and anger. 2. They may also be irritable, eat too much food, or abuse drugs.
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3. Burnout is caused by continued elevated levels of stress where the individual feels they are no longer able to physically or psychologically cope with stress. 4.
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