Arlene Madrid.pdf - Arlene Madrid April 23,2020 Biology 101...

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Arlene MadridApril 23,2020Biology 101Professor J. DartleyLab: DNA ReplicationThe Cell Cycle: DNA Replication Occurs During the Cell CycleAInterphase: metabolic phase of cell in which cell acquire nutrients and metabolize them.BG1: Growth phaseCS: Synthesis or replication of DNADG2: Growth and preparation for mitosisEProphase: Chromosome condenses and nuclear envelope breaks down.FMetaphase: Chromosome moves to opposite poles and each sister chromosomeattaches to spindle fiber.GAnaphase: Chromosomes are pulled towards opposite poles.HTelophase: Chromosome arrives at each end and starts to decondense. Mitotic spindlebreaks downIMitosis: The process of cellular replication.JCytokinesis: Cleavage furrow separates the daughter cells.
1. What are the monomers of DNA, labeled “A”?
2. What is the identity of “B”?
3. What type of molecule is deoxyribose, labeled “C”?
4. What is the identity of “D”?
5. Which base (A, C, G, or T) would we expect “E” to represent?
6. Which base (A, C, G, or T) would we expect “F” to represent?
7. What type of bond is “G” pointing to?
8. What type of base are adenine and guanine?
9. What type of base are cytosine and thymine?
Label the following diagram:Word Bank:Nucleotide, Deoxyribose sugar, Phosphate groups, Nitrogen base, Hydrogen bonds,Base pair.1.deoxyribose2.nitrogen base3.nucleotide4.base pair5.hydrogen bonds6.phosphate groupThe Enzymes Used in DNA ReplicationFill in the following table:The EnzymeIs the Enzyme in Initiation, Elongationor TerminationWhat is the function of theEnzymeHelicaseInitiationUnwinds the DNA.DNA GyraseInitiationDNA gyrase can makenegative supercoilingpreventing overwinding of DNAahead of the replication fork.Single Strand BindingProteinsInitiationSeparate the strands of DNAdouble helix and prevent thedouble helix from reforming.
RNA PrimaseInitiationSynthesizes RNA primers.DNA PolymeraseElongationDNA polymerase I - Excision ofRNA primers and replaces withDNA nucleotides. DNApolymerase I also has aproofreading activity i.e itremoves the incorrectnucleotide and places thecorrect one.DNA polymerase II - It canrepair DNA by filling gaps inpolynucleotide chains that areless than 100 nucleotides.DNA LigaseElongationDNA polymerase III -Synthesizes DNA.TelomeraseElongationComplete the table by estimating the percentages of each based on Chargaff’s Rules of BasePairings: The percentages of adenine and thymine are almost always equal in DNA, just as thepercentages of guanine and cytosine are almost equal.

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