Lecture 3

Lecture 3 - •"" $ $ • • • • • •&"$ • •"$"'$ 0 $"$ 0" 1 1 $" 1 0"2""

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anadian Maritime New York City < $% ' - " " ! ' !(, ! ! ,- '! ! 6 / ! "9 #% !A " !( ! ! " " ! ' !(, !! " &' , ( 4 !( " , , $ $ ( "$ ( "( , '! ! ( ! , ! '- " !(" •$ ! /! ! ( ! (' $ (" , $ ! !, ' ! 7' $/ '+ " (" , $ '! '+ !, " $ ( , $ "( '8 !A " 1 R' !( ! (( " $ /! , ' ! "( , ! S, !( !(, $ '! '! (, , '!! ( ( $ "( '8 !A "! (" ! H' ! ,( , " ! ! = /! , ! - , !, ( ! , '! ! ' @ + '! , $ ! = SOUTH • Eastern New England !( Humberside ! Newfoundland &- # , NORTH Modern English Dialect Areas (Map 2 of Trudgill 2000:152). Map indicates that a region which has been settled for a long period of time shows great linguistic diversity. : !( . ( (" ( (4 ! ' , ! !' !$ : : 7 9/17/2010 Vermont " Massachusetts New York Connecticut Dragonfly has at least six different West Pennsylvania Virginia New Jersey names in the Eastern, Northeastern, and Southeastern USA, Virginia according to the Linguistic Atlas of the Eastern States North (ca. 1950) (from Carolina South Kurath 1982:50). Carolina : ' ( " !( 0 "+ A &' $ ! ,$ , !( "! 0 !$ = 7- ' ' $0 , !( $ 0 " + A 6 =@ 8 < 9 ' , '! 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h ig V @ 6 !, 1' !, !" ! !A 6 K! '" F 1' 9 , !( ! <=< 6 ! !, , << )444 9 ! ,! !, 1' !F ! ( ! ! ( ( ( ( ' "' ' " ! $! ( , ! ,! ! !/ ' ( /' $ ( 4 ' ( ! , !A $ , !( ! ( $ ! ,! '! $ ! ' ( " ! !A /- ' ( ' ' 4 , !( ! ( '! ( !( $ !( ( ( ! ; <:< ' (F ( 1' ! " 2, ' 1' ( " !" - ! ! ! !( ! ( ( $ "' ! /! , '! ' " ,, , ( !, 1' ! $! ' ! F ! ,! , ( " !" ! M " , !( - ! ( , ! ! ! "' ! 6K 'F ! , 9/ ' ! ,! , !( ! ! "! ! ! ,(4 !( !" H !A e fd W "' ! 6K 1' !F H ! !( ! " !" 1' !, " ! ' !( " 1( ! c ! Y " ! ' !( 1( ! a b` " P QI 0 , !/ 9 0 ! ' !9 ( ( @< 7 10 ab` Y c X WV 9/17/2010 1( ! & 6 ! !, , << )4( 9 0 0! ++ # # M! ! ! ,! J J! " $ " 1' G! ,! M / ! ( ! $ " 1' , !( , !" /H ! 6 <==) = 8 9 '! , ( ,! ( 4 !( / ' ( " !( ! , ' / !( 8 ' ( " !( ! ! !A , , !" ! ' , !( " ( ! $ "! ! ( 1' ! ! $! ( " " ! , !( ! ( $ II 7 7 H !F 1! 1 1 1' ! ! , &' > !( !' ' (- " ( ( - , $ 1! ( , !' ' ," ' , !( ! > !( -' ! $ !($ ( ! 1( ! G! $" 4 !(! , ' ( " !( !) , " ) 3 5 B @@C 1! )B CK / ' / F ' 0 ' ) 3 5B @ C 1! )B CK F F H "! ' 3 5B @ C 1! )B CK / F 7 ' ( " !(1 ! !( ' 8 , $ "" , !A ! !( & / , WH ) B :C K ' F B / @@C K !( F " ) / B : @@C K F '/ B @@ @@C K F B B , !( /H '! -' W , R 1! ) B @@ @C K F ' B @@ @@C K F @@C/B @@C K ' A F @C K ' R !( F 9 qr br s p r 6 rq Tp r ' & ( " !(1 ' !" 6 1' 9 / $ ( ) ( & (R '! "/N /! , &' , ( , , !( / ' ! "' ! ; 1! & ! @E ' 1' q : 7: ( ! ,! 77 11 s 9/17/2010 ?" 1! " 1' & $ 1' Ping Sheng Voiced/ Voiceless initial consonants occurred with all four tone categories v u , Tone contour may have been level Tone contour may have been rising Tone contour may have been falling No tone contour; only syllables with –p, -t, -k endings in this tone category 7= u x u t u w 7 3 7< "& '" 33 33 2 y ' !($ ( , !( !9 23 23 4 { 21 22 22 6 ~ € 6 21 (-p -t -k) 5 33 7b h 1 I! " "& '" @ 7a 33  w (from historically voiceless initial consonants) 25 0 N I! " 35 22/ 2 2 22 8 " 0 N "& '" 214 51 ' " "& '" ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) (Above syllables are Cantonese examples) " } x 55 25 " z 55 ( 1! " | s ‡r I "& '! " ' " ‰t s (& "' !( & su ?" : 1! sv – 2 4 1 ‹ ‹ „fŠ ‰ f‚f„bf‰ Š ˆ fˆ …„ ‡‡† Tfƒ fff† ‚ ff — ' !($ ( , !( !9 "& '! " ' 55 I – 6 (syllableendings –p, -t, -k first changed to glottal stop and then [ ] was lost, so this tone category has disappeared in Putonghua) " llll ’ I! " (& "' nnnn “ † ‡… 1 35 "& '" h 51 $(! ( E " !($ ( " " ( ( , E' ! ,! & 1! " nnnn ppppllll jjoojjoo ” ‰ˆ † (from historically voiceless initial consonants) "& '" • † 0 N 214 55 I " †‘ "& '! " ' " ?" ooppoopp qqqq jjjj iiii ™™™d ™d d˜˜˜˜ d (& "' ( 1! " kkkk ™‡ ™‡ ™‡ ‡eeee ™ !( "' ! & mmmm ™™™™ ffff ?" d ™d d ™™dgggg ™ 7' !, (/ F " "F Ru Sheng € fy 1' $ ! $6 ! $ 1 9 '!, !" ! ,) " ' "K '! " ' " K "F / N' K 0 "F ! , / ' "K • &' !" '! !, !($ , !" ! ( ,! , ! ' (- " " ( Qu Sheng € ‚ • Shang Sheng €ƒ & €„ ? " $! $ 6' " ' " !9 6 N "2'! / =:8 @ 9 P 6K A "/ A "/ ! ' "/ ! ' "F 6K ( 1 ,/ ( ( ! / ( ! F ,/ 6K ( /, ( / ! ! + ' ,/ ' ,/ ! /, ! F 9 P ' '! !( , ' " ! ( !( '' $ 1' (! 6 ! ) @:8@@9 $ 12 – 9/17/2010 4 !(1 ,B : A 1' !F 1 ! ( , ' 1' ! A (- " ( , $ ' > !( ' ( 4 !( / ' ( " !( ! , / ' ( " !( !) M" 1'! " '! ? 2' JF ! '!" " Q! F # " H ! '! " 2' 4! + 2' 0 ! "2' ' — F – ©• ™ ˜ K ’¦” Œ H , , “ G! ! "( ! , B C! # M! , !( !, (, ! ! ,! ' K $ " ' A - ' ' '! $ '! ' , ' A F B @C ! 1! B @@ @C + ! ,F 3 5 2'! ) )B C K - !( )L L 2 AF )B C K FL ) L 2/ L 3 )B @C K ' F3 ) 5 ! "2 ) B@ @C ’"‘ + ' ( " !(1 K ‘ Œ 4 !(! , , 1! =+ , 1! <+ , 1! +, 1!  ( '! " '! ! ,' $ "( ') 1 E( , "( ' B C6 ! < ' $1 9 / "( ' B C6 0 ! +, B C 9 + !  1' ( ( ! P '! " , 6 !( !(2 ,9 !( ( 8 !( !(! ! ! !BC ' "' - (B C ) P XY SO "/ P K FXY B @@C "' ! 1! )B C Ž • • • • • C! , !( @ ' !( $ $? ! 1 1' ( - " - '! ( ' -/ ' ' (" ! ' !$ , ! , $ 3W5/ - ' ( ! , ! , $ 385 • 3.5 , ! ' !$ !! / ' , ! ; , ! ,J! " $ " ! ,! !( ?! ( M" !, J! !, # " !, 2' + + 2' + 1'! " '! J! " '!" /+ / " J! " : @ 7 = !" ®®®® • !! !( «œª£¨¦£¥£¡Ÿœž›œš © ¦§ ¤ ¢  1 7 ­£¬ 7 ( " !(1  !( ' 8 = 13 9/17/2010 ³ ´² 4! # M! $ " 0 ! / I / # M!/ ! , !( ?! ( ¦ £µ ; , 0 ! "2' I ¦ ´¶ ° ±¯ H ! '! " 0! ! 1 ¸ ¹· 1 ? 2' !! !( Q! F • !( $ $? ! 1' ( - " - '! ( ' -/ ' ' (" ! ' !$ , ! , $ 3W5/ - ' ( ! , ! , $ 385 • 3.5 , ! ' !$ !! / ' , : @ 7 = < ' < ( !$ ! A $ " 1' ( 1' !( !( (! • ," ' ( - ", ( ( !$ ! / ' ! "K / ( A ! F! , " /! , ! , $ ' ' 1' '! ! ) 6, 9 6A! 9 6- ! "9 / / • &' ! !, $ ( ! ' , !( !( ) , ! , $' ! '! / ' , !" !! , , " ' 1' ! !' ' /! , ( ! $' ' !M , !( ! ( ) ! ,! / + / J ! "/ : 0 ! / @ # M!/ 7 I / ! , - , º » = ' = ; • !M 6 '! ! , !( " &' ! $ ' Ù Ë Ø Ê × Ë Ô ´Å ¿Ä¿ÂÑÏÁο Ì¿ÈÉÇ ¿ÌÖ Õ‡¿ÃÁ¿Í½ ÆÓÒÐÀ¾ • $ " ! , 1( ! !( ?! ¼ ; , = ( !$ ! ' !/' , !( '- , 9 , $' - ' ' $ !( I " # " 1! ! @! << / := = =: 14 9/17/2010 -! " !- ! A » "# • &' , , !- ! A) ' ! ! ' !A - ' ! , ( ! ' !" , =7 =@ & " 1! !, ! " # " 1! ! - '' !/ " ! ! 0 - !! 6J " ! 9 , 0 ! "2' !( - , ) ; !( ! BC , #B C ) B CB CK ! F B B K F ! 0 - !! "# " ! 0 - !! , "' @ ! , "' ( @@ 6 9 / " # " !A , ! , '! ( "' $ 0) B @ C K ' F[ B @@C K ' FX B #) B Ý2Ü à Þ ß = ! / " # " 1! !,' !, !' !, ; ! , 1 / " ( / + !A # " & ! "/ , / ' " + " # ") " $ "# " @8@= !/ !, # , << . " & () ,0 $ 1'! / Q # ! , & ," (/ ( <= / 1! ," )1! ," $ 1 $ !( ! , / # $ ' M ")? " ! " !" & ! ' " ! , !' =< à !, !M , !- ! A) ' ! ( ( '" '- ' ' '! ! ! , !$ ', , !( • , , !- ! A) ' !, "2 !! R" # !A ' @!, B C á 1 ! / á ¼ ' 0 ! "2' •? ! Ú • - , !( ' A! •; '! ' 6H ! ( "/ ! N "4 / '! 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This note was uploaded on 06/16/2011 for the course HUMA 100E taught by Professor Allenhuang during the Fall '10 term at HKUST.

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