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Lecture 6 - Topics in this Lecture HUMA100E Introduction to...

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10/12/2010 1 1 HUMA100E Introduction to Sociolinguistics Lecture 6 Sociolinguistic Study of Cantonese Phonetic Variation and Change 11 October 2010 Prof. Robert S. BAUER Division of Humanities Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Topics in this Lecture Three Dimensions of Language Change Phonetic, Lexical, and Social Aspects of Language Change Possible Impacts of Language Change on Speech Community Sociolinguistic Basis of Language Variation and Change Phonological Variation X ~ Y and Change in Hong Kng Cantonese Speech Community Theory of Lexical Diffusion 2 3 Terminology for Phonological Variation and Change Linguistic variation Social variation Phonological variation Phonological change, Sound change Diachronic variation Synchronic variation Phonological variable and its variant forms Stages of sound change 4 Synchronic Study of Phonological Variation and Change Narrow time frame of sound change Broad time frame of sound change Phonological variable and its variant forms Social variable Sociolinguistic interview Stratified random sample population of speakers Style shifting 5 Synchronic Study of Phonological Variation and Change Spontaneous speech Casual speech, casual style Formal speech, formal style Reading passage style Word-list style Free variation Conditioned variation Conditioned sound change Unconditioned sound change 6 Phonological Variation and Change and the Theory of Lexical Diffusion Theory of Lexical Diffusion Phonological dimension of sound change Lexical dimension of sound change Social dimension of sound change Variation in both sounds and words as mechanism of sound change
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10/12/2010 2 7 Three Dimensions of Language Change 1. Time Dimension: Language change occurs over time. We can compare a language’s current state with that of a few years ago, a few hundred years ago, or even a few thousand years ago. Pronunciation of a word, meaning of a word, or syntactic usage can all be compared over time to see if there has been change between the two time periods. Time 1 Time 2 14 th century 21 st century Language A ==> Language A 8 Three Dimensions of Language Change 2. Linguistic Dimension Change can affect a word' s pronunciation, its meaning, its syntactic usage, etc. We can represent these kinds of changes as follows: (1) Sound X => Sound Y (2) Meaning A => Meaning B (3) Usage 1 => Usage 2 9 Historical Sound Change Historical (i.e. diachronic) sound change refers to changes in pronunciations of words that have occurred over a broad time span of several hundred or several thousand years. For example, compare pronunciations of English clean (from Old English °±² ³´µ [ ¶· ±²¸´¹ ] ‘delicate, dainty’) from three different time periods: 1. Chaucer 2. Shakespeare 3. Modern English (1343-1400) (1564-1616) 2010 14 th century 16 th century 21 st century clene clean clean [ ¶· ±º ¸´¹ ] [ ¶· ±µ¸´ ] [ ¶· ±»¸´ ] Great Vowel Shift (= Raising) and Vowel Merger 1400 1500 1600 1700 2010
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