Lecture 7

Lecture 7 - 2010/10/25 Topics in This Lecture HUMA100E...

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2010/10/25 1 1 HUMA100E Introduction to Sociolinguistics Language Contact: Bilingualism, Multilingualism, Minority Language, Endangered Language 22 October 2010 Prof. Robert S. Bauer Division of Humanities Topics in This Lecture • Language contact • Bilingualism, Multilingualism, Monolingualism • Multilingual Singapore, Hong Kong, Luxembourg, Canada • National language, Official language • Minority language, Language minority • Language conflicts: Belgium, India • Language loss, shift, death, preservation, maintenance, revitalization • Language attitudes • Endangered language 2 3 Language Contact “A term used to apply to situations where two or more groups of speakers who do not have a native language in common are in social contact with one another or come into such contact.” Language Contact (contd.) “Communication between the groups may be difficult in the short term, and may in the long term lead to the different languages influencing one another, as a result of bilingualism on the part of (some of) the speakers involved.” 4 5 Language Contact (contd.) “Language contact may lead to or involve phenomena such as borrowing, code-switching, language shift, lingua francas, multilingualism and pidginisation.” (Trudgill 2003:74) 6 Bilingualism: Linguistic Ability of Individual Speakers “[Bilingualism is] [t]he ability of an individual to speak two or more languages. In the usage of some writers, bilingualism refers only to individuals who have native command of more than one language. Other writers use the term to refer to any speaker who has a reasonable degree of competence in some language other than their mother tongue. (Trudgill 2003:15)
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2010/10/25 2 7 Bilingualism Around the World “Sociolinguists are agreed that bilingualism is so widespread in the world that there are probably more people in the world who are bilingual, at least in the second sense, than there are monolinguals. Many sociolinguists use the term 'bilingualism' to refer to individuals, even if they are trilingual, quadrilingual, etc., and reserve the term multilingualism for nations or societies, even if only two languages are involved.” (Trudgill 2003:15) 8 Bilingualism vs. Multilingualism “Many sociolinguists use the term 'bilingualism' to refer to individuals, even if they are trilingual, quadrilingual, etc., and reserve the term multilingualism for nations or societies, even if only two languages are involved.” (Trudgill 2003:15) 9 Multilingualism "The opposite of monolingualism . A sociolinguistic situation in which more than one language is involved, usually involving also language contact and individual bilingualism . Note that many sociolinguists use the term
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Lecture 7 - 2010/10/25 Topics in This Lecture HUMA100E...

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