Lecture 10

Lecture 10 - HUMA100E Introduction to Sociolinguistics...

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11/11/2010 1 1 HUMA100E Introduction to Sociolinguistics Language Contact (3): Code-switching and Code-mixing 12 November 2010 Prof. Robert S. Bauer Division of Humanities Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Topics in This Lecture • Code-switching • Code-mixing • Analysis of Cantonese-English code-mixed texts • Matrix Language Frame Model (Myers- Scotton) • Matrix Language and Embedded Language • Analysis of English-Cantonese code-mixed “icq” texts 2 3 Phenomena Produced Through Language Contact Bilingual individuals Multilingual societies Lingua Francas, Pidgins, Creoles Code-switching “Mixed” Languages Code-mixing (intrasentential code-switching) Linguistic borrowing Loan words Rough-and-Ready Definitions of Some Basic Terms Code : another term for speech variety. Code-switching : refers to linguistic behavior of a bilingual speaker who subconsciously shifts from speaking one variety to another variety, usually in response to factors associated with the social situation. Code-mixing : refers to linguistic behavior of a bilingual speaker who imports words or phrases from one of his/her languages into the other one. 4 5 Code-switching: English-Spanish Bilingual Mexican-American speaker (southwest USA) switches between English and Spanish: “I didn’t quit. I just stopped. I mean it wasn’t an effort I made que voy a dejar de fumar porque me hace da o o this or that. I used to pull butts out of the wastepaper basket. I’d get desperate, y ahi voy al basurero a buscar, a sacar , you know?” [English translation: ‘that I’m going to stop smoking because it’s harmful to me’ . . . ‘and there I go to the wastebasket to look for some, to get some’] (from Trudgill 2000:105) 6 Code-switching: Speaker switches Between Two Languages One of the bilingual speaker’s two languages conveys the sense of we-solidarity among the participants and is considered appropriate for in-group and informal activities. From the speaker' s point of view his or her other language is regarded as they-oriented and suitable for conversation with people who belong to the out-group and for more formal and impersonal situations. (Wardhaugh 1992:107)
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11/11/2010 2 7 Switching Between Languages as Unconscious Behavior For most speakers the shift from speaking in one language to another one across a string of sentences or within the same sentence is below the level of conscious awareness, so that the speaker typically does not realize that he or she has switched between languages in the course of a conversation. 8 Purpose of Switching or Mixing Languages Speaker subconsciously uses code-mixing and code-switching as a mechanism for signalling his/her two social identities at the same time. Speaker'
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Lecture 10 - HUMA100E Introduction to Sociolinguistics...

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