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Unformatted text preview: 11/19/2010 1 1 HUMA100E Introduction to Sociolinguistics Lecture 11 Lexical Borrowing: from French into English, and from English into Cantonese 19 November 2010 Prof. Robert S. BAUER Division of Humanities Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Topics of This Lecture • Language contact can come about through military conquest and commercial trade • Language contact leads to bilingualism and lexical borrowing • Methods of lexical borrowing • Historical Sociolinguistics • Norman Conquest in 1066 and French- English contact • Loanwords from French into English in 12 th and 13 th centuries 2 Topics of This Lecture • Cantonese-English contact through trade in South China • Loanwords from English into Cantonese from 19 th to 21 st centuries • Historical stages for borrowing English words into Cantonese • Three methods of borrowing English loanwords into Cantonese 3 Topics of This Lecture Distribution of English loanwords by their syntactic and semantic categories in Cantonese Evidence for verifying integration of English loanwords into Cantonese lexicon and grammar Written forms of English loanwords in Cantonese Impact of borrowing English words through phonetic transliteration on Cantonese sound system and syllabary (= system of syllables) 4 5 Languages in Contact “. . . two or more languages will be said to be in contact if they are used alternately by the same persons. The language-using individuals are thus the locus of the contact.” (Weinreich 1964:1) 6 Language Contact, Bilingualism, and Bilinguals “The practice of alternately using two languages will be called bilingualism, and the persons involved, bilingual.” (Weinreich 1964:1) The physical locus of language contact is in the brains of the bilingual speakers. 11/19/2010 2 Contact between English and Other Languages Over the course of its history of approximately 1,500 years the English language has been in contact with many other languages. This contact has profoundly influenced the development of English, so that it has absorbed countless words from other languages. One language that has had great impact on the English lexicon is French: about 30 % of English vocabulary (approximately 75,000 words) have come from French. How and why did this happen? 7 Some Names • Normandy = region along the northern coast of France • Normans = (north men) descendants of (Old Norse-speaking) Vikings from Scandinavia who had settled in Normandy in 10 th century; they intermarried with local population and adopted French language and culture • William II, Duke of Normandy • Harold II, King of England • Battle of Hastings in southeastern England in 1066 CE 8 9 Mediterranean Sea Spain Normandy Belgium Battle of Hastings Norman Conquest of England and its Impact on English • In 1066 at the Battle of Hastings in East Sussex, England, the Norman army, led by Duke William II of Normandy, defeated the army of the English King Harold II....
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