Chapter 2_May11 - CHAPTER2 ATOMS,MOLECULESAND IONS 1...

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1 CHAPTER 2 ATOMS, MOLECULES AND  IONS
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2 CONTENTS 2.1 The Modern View of Atomic Structure 2.2 The Periodic Table 2.3 Molecules and Molecular Compounds 2.4 Ions and Ionic Compounds 2.5 Naming of Compounds
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3 Learning Outcomes Able to differentiate between ions, molecules, ionic and molecular compound. Able to name compounds and write their formulas
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4 2.1 The Modern View of Atomic  Structure Atom consists of positive (proton), negative  (electron) and neutral entities (neutron). Protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus of  the atom (nucleus is the center of an atom).  Most  of the mass of the atom is due to the nucleus. Electrons are located outside of the nucleus.  Most  of the volume of the atom is due to electrons.
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5 Con’t: 2.1 The Modern View of  Atomic Structure Masses  of  neutron,  proton  and  electron  are  so  small,  that  we  define  as  the  atomic  mass  unit,  amu .            1 amu  = 1.66054  ×  10 -24  g      1 g    = 6.02214  ×  10 23  amu  
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6 Con’t: 2.1 The Modern View of  Atomic Structure Comparison of the proton, neutron and electron  Particle          Charge              Mass (amu) Proton Positive (+1) 1.0073 Neutron Neutral 1.0087 Electron Negative (-1) 5.486  ×  10 -4
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7 Con’t: 2.1 The Modern View of Atomic  Structure  Atoms are extremely small, diameters between 1  ×           10 -10  m and 5  ×  10 -10  m or 100-500 pm.  Define 1 Å  = 1  ×  10 -10  m Note : 1 Å  = 10 -10  m = 100 pm = 0.1 nm  The diameter of atomic nuclei are in the order of  10 -4   Å .
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8 2.1.1 Isotopes, Atomic Numbers and  Mass Numbers  All atoms of the same element have the same number      of protons.  The general symbol for an isotope:   A Z X = element A = mass number       = no.of protons(Z) + no.of neutrons (N) Z  = atomic number = no. of protons = no. of      electrons for neutral element only.      The number of neutrons = A - Z.  
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9 Con’t: 2.1.1 Isotopes, Atomic  Numbers and Mass Numbers  All atoms of the same element have the same      number of protons/atomic number, Z.  Atoms that have the same number of protons but      differ in their number of neutrons are called      isotopes . Isotopes have the same Z but different A.               E.g.  14 C,  13 C,  12 C,  11 C
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10 Symbol No.of Protons No. of Electrons No. of Neutrons 11 C 6 6 5 12 C 6 6 6 13 C 6 6 7 14 C 6 6 8 Con’t: 2.1.1 Isotopes, Atomic  Numbers and Mass Numbers Some of the isotopes of Carbon: An atom of a specific isotope is called a  nuclide E.g:  2 1 nuclide (deuterium), 3 1 H nuclide (tritium)    
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11 2 1 3 1   Example 1
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