Chapter 4_May11 - CHAPTER4 AQUEOUSREACTIONS&SOLUTION...

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1 CHAPTER 4 CHAPTER 4 AQUEOUS REACTIONS & SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY
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2 CONTENTS 4.1 General Properties of Aqueous Solutions 4.2 Precipitation Reactions 4.3 Acid-BaseReactions 4.4 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 4.5 Concentrations of Solutions 4.6 Solution Stoichiometry and Chemical Analysis
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3 Learning Outcomes e Able to identify types of metathesis reaction e Able to determine the precipitate forms in a reaction e Able to calculate oxidation number of element and identify the oxidizing agent in a redox reaction e Able to calculate unknown concentration in a titration of acid-base solutions (reaction).
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4 4.1 General Properties of  Aqueous Solutions A solution is a homogeneous mixture. Contains: a solvent (greater quantity) and solute(s). Solvent - substancein themixturewhich acts as the dissolving medium. Whatever elseis dissolved in thesolution is called the solute(s) .
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5 Con’t: 4.1 General Properties of  Aqueous Solutions E.g. NaCl (s) + H 2 O (l) NaCl (aq) solute solvent aqueous solution Solution in which water is the dissolving medium are called aqueous solutions .
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6 Con’t: 4.1 General Properties of  Aqueous Solutions All aqueous solutions can beclassified in terms of its electrical conductivity. Solution conducts electricity: forms ions in solution is an electrolyte . e.g. NaCl (an ionic compound ) # conducts electricity well: strong electrolyte (NaCl) # conducts electricity poorly: weak electrolytes
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7 Con’t: 4.1 General Properties o  Aqueous Solutions Solution does not conduct electricity does not form ions in solution is a non electrolyte e.g. sugar (a molecular compound)
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8 4.1.1 Ionic Compounds in Water Ionic compounds dissolve in water, dissociate into anions and cations. The solid no longer exists as a well ordered arrangement, each ion is surrounded by water molecules . The ions aredispersed uniformly throughout the solution. The relative concentrations of the ions depend on the chemical formula of the compound. (Sec: 4.5.2)
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9 4.1.2 Molecular Compounds in  Water Molecular compounds (e.g. CH 3 OH, sugar etc.) dissolve and exist as dispersed molecules throughout the solution. The structural integrity of the compound is maintained. Does not form ions – no ions to conduct electricity. they are non-electrolytes
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10 Con’t: 4.1.2 Molecular  Compounds in Water Some important exceptions: NH 3 dissolves in water to form NH 4 + and OH - HCl (g) in water ionizes to form H + and Cl -
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11 4.1.3 Strong and Weak  Electrolytes Electrolyte: any substance whose aqueous solution contains ions that conduct electricity. Strong electrolytes - ionize 100 % in a solvent. E.g. (i) Most ionic compounds (salt), NaOH (ii) Strong acids and bases: HCl, HBr, HClO 4 A single arrow ( ): ionization of strong electrolytes.
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