Chapter 8_May11 - CHAPTER8 CONCEPTSOF CHEMICALBONDING 1...

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1 CHAPTER 8 CHAPTER 8 CONCEPTS OF  CHEMICAL BONDING
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2 CONTENTS 8.1 Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding 8.2 Ionic Bonding 8.3 Sizes of Ions 8.4 Covalent Bonding 8.5 Lewis Structures: Comment about the Octet Rule 8.6 Strength of Covalent Bonds
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3 Learning outcomes Able to determine Able to draw and use Born Haber cycle for calculations Able to draw Lewis structure to fulfill octet rule Able to identify resonance structures and calculate formal charge Able to calculate enthalpies (energy) from Lewis structure of compounds
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4 8.1 Basic Concepts of Chemical  Bonding 1.   Why do atoms in an element or molecule (except noble  gas) prefers to undergo chemical reaction? - to attain the octet configuration of the inert noble gas
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5 Con’t: 8.1 Basic Concepts of  Chemical Bonding 2.  Why “Octet configuration”? - very stable electron arrangement.  - high ionization energy. - low affinity for additional electrons. - lack of chemical reactivity
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6 Con’t: 8.1 Basic Concepts of  Chemical Bonding 3. What is  this “ octet” configuration or rule? Octet rule- an atom is stable when surrounded by 8  electrons at the valence orbital i.e. an octet of 4 pairs of  valence electrons arranged around the atoms.
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7 Con’t: 8.1 Basic Concepts of  Chemical Bonding 4. How do they attain this “Octet” configuration? - by forming chemical bonds 5. What is a chemical bond? - chemical bond is viewed as forces that causes a group  of atoms to behave as a unit.
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8 Con’t: 8.1 Basic Concepts of  Chemical Bonding 6. Why do chemical bond occurs?   - bond results from a tendency of a system to seek its lowest  possible energy There are 3 types of bonding: ionic, covalent  and metallic . 7. How are chemical bonds formed? - by  gaining losing  or  sharing  electron valence as the  case might be between the atoms.
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9 Con’t: 8.1 Basic Concepts of  Chemical Bonding 8.1.1 Types of Chemical Bonds i) Ionic Bond   - electronic forces that exist between ions of  opposite  charge. - ions are formed from atoms by the  transfer  of one or more  electrons   from one atom to another. - results from the interaction of  metals  with  non metals .
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10 Con’t: 8.1.1 Types of Chemical  Bonds ii) Covalent Bond sharing  of electrons between 2 atoms e.g.  interactions of  non-metallic  elements with one  another. (e.g. Cl 2 )
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Con’t: 8.1.1 Types of Chemical  Bonds iii) Metallic Bonds - found in metals - each metal atom is bonded to several     neighboring  atoms. - bonding electrons are 
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Chapter 8_May11 - CHAPTER8 CONCEPTSOF CHEMICALBONDING 1...

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