Chapter08 - Applied Science Department (ASD) Centre for...

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PCE 0015 Chemistry for Engineers Foundation in Engineering ONLINE NOTES Chapter 8 EQUILIBRIUM OF IONS IN SOLUTION FOSEE , MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY (436821-T) MELAKA CAMPUS, JALAN AYER KEROH LAMA, 75450 MELAKA, MALAYSIA. Tel 606 252 3594 Fax 606 231 8799 URL: http://fosee.mmu.edu.my/~asd/ Applied Science Department (ASD) Centre for Foundation Studies and Extension Education (FOSEE)
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PCE0015 Chemistry For Engineers Chapter 8 8.1 Acids and Bases Concepts 8.2 Arrhenius and Bronsted-Lowry Concepts 8.3 pH and pOH 8.4 Types of Acids 8.5 Hydrolysis 8.6 Titration 8.7 Acid-base Indicators Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to : 1. Distinguish acids and bases. 2. Explain the theory of Arrhenius and Bronsted-Lowry concepts. 3. Define pH and pOH scale as a measure of acidity and basicity respectively. 4. Differentiate types of acids (monoprotic acid and polyprotic acid). 5. Understand hydrolysis for: a. Salt hydrolysis from strong acid and strong base b. Salt hydrolysis from weak acid and strong base c. Salt hydrolysis from strong acid and weak base d. Salt hydrolysis from weak acid and weak base 6. Apply the quantitative study of acid-base neutralization reactions by titration technique. 7. Understand the use of indicator in titration technique to determine equivalence point. __________________________________________________________________________________ HST/MAM 2/ 16
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PCE0015 Chemistry For Engineers Chapter 8 8.1 ACIDS AND BASES CONCEPTS Acids are substances that have the following characteristics when dissolved in water : a) Acids taste sour, if diluted with enough water to be tasted safely b) Acids produce a prickling or stinging sensation to the skin c) Acids turn the color of litmus, an indicator dye, from blue to red d) Acids react with many metals, such as Mg, Zn and Fe to produce ionic compounds and H 2 gas e) Acids also react with bases, thereby losing their acidic properties Bases are substances that have the following characteristics when dissolved in water : a) Bases taste bitter, if diluted with enough water to taste safely b) Bases feel slippery or soapy on the skin c) Bases turn the color of the indicator dye litmus from red to blue d) Bases react with acids, thereby losing their basic properties Different acids dissociate to different extents in aqueous solution. Those acids that dissociate to a large extent are strong acids; those acids that dissociate only to a small extent are weak acids. Bases, like acids, can also be either strong or weak, depending on the extent to which they dissociate and produce OH¯ ions in aqueous solution. Most metal hydroxide, such as NaOH and Ba(OH) 2 are strong bases, but ammonia (NH 3 ) is a weak base : NH 3 ( g ) + H 2 O ( l ) NH 4 + ( aq ) + OH¯( aq ) The reaction of ammonia with H 2 O takes place only to a small extent ( 1%), most of the ammonia remain unreacted. Table below shows some common acids and bases Strong HClO 4 Perchloric acid NaOH Sodium hydroxide Strong acid H 2 SO 4 Sulfuric acid KOH Potassium hydroxide base HBr Hydrobromic acid Ba(OH) 2 Barium hydroxide HCl Hydrochloric acid Ca(OH) 2 Calcium hydroxide HNO 3 Nitric acid Weak H 3 PO 4 Phosphoric acid NH 3 Ammonia Weak acid HF Hydrofluoric acid base CH 3 CO
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This note was uploaded on 06/16/2011 for the course ENGR 101 taught by Professor Ahmed during the Summer '11 term at Multimedia University, Cyberjaya.

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Chapter08 - Applied Science Department (ASD) Centre for...

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