chap8 - Computer Science Department (CSD) Centre for...

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FOSEE , MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY (436821-T) MELAKA CAMPUS, JALAN AYER KEROH LAMA, 75450 MELAKA, MALAYSIA. Tel 606 252 3594 Fax 606 231 8799 URL: http://fosee.mmu.edu.my/~csd/ Computer Science Department (CSD) Centre for Foundation Studies and Extension Education (FOSEE) PCA 0015 Computer Applications Foundation in Engineering ONLINE NOTES Chapter 8 Database Management & Information Systems
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PCA0015 Computer Applications Chapter 8 Objectives: Upon completion of this topic, the students should be able to: Differentiate between a file processing system and a database management system. Describe the five categories of database organizations. Describe the five categories of information systems. 8.0 Introduction to databases Every time we borrow books from the library, look up a friend in a phone book, shop at the local grocery store with a shopper's discount card, or use a credit card to make a purchase, we are using databases . Take a look in your wallet: driver's license, ATM cards, student ID card, building pass, and more. Not only do you use databases, but you also exist as a record in a myriad of other databases. Whenever you shop, use the Internet, make travel arrangements, or register for a class, you become part of another database. 8.1 File Processing Systems A file processing system is a system used to store and manage data in which each department or area within an organization has its own set of files . In the 1950's large organizations like universities had different files for different purposes. Different departments within an organization had its own set of files, designed specifically for their own applications. For example the exam department and accommodation department had the list of all students in their own systems. If one of the students quit from the university then the deletion had to be made to both files. However, this problem can be solved by using a database system whereby all the departments access one single database instead of separate files. Disadvantages of using file processing systems: o Data redundancy - waste resources such as storage space and employee time . o Isolated data - when data is stored in multiple files in multiple departments, often it is difficult to update the data. Sharing data from multiple files to generate any list often is a complicated procedure and typically requires the expertise of an experienced computer programmer. 8.2 Database The hierarchy of data o Character - is a single letter, number, or special character represented by a byte (B). CSD Lecturer 2/9
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PCA0015 Computer Applications Chapter 8 o Field - a unit of data consisting of one or more characters. o Record - a collection of related fields. o
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chap8 - Computer Science Department (CSD) Centre for...

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