bacteria - Bacterial infections and diseases Modes of...

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Bacterial infections and diseases Modes of transmission Direct host-host Airborne (Fig 34.1): Aerols Coughing, sneezing, talking, breathing 10-100K bacteria Gram positive Person-person Indirect host-host Vectorborne Animal-transmitted Arthropod-transmitted Fomites : inanimate object that, when contaminated with a viable pathogen, can transfer that pathogen to a host population Vehicles Foodborne Waterborne Soilborne Reservoirs: place to live before/after causing infections Leave host, return to reservoir/enter new host Active vs passive transport Active : movement or pathogen to portal of exit Passive : excretion in feces, urine, saliva DHH: Airborne transmission and respiratory pathogens Streptococcus pyogenes Gram positive Pharyngitis, “strep throat” >60 defined strains, different antigens Alpha and beta hemolysis Treatable with antibiotics Streptococcus pyogenes Group A Scarlet fever o Treatable with antibiotics o Acute glumerulonephritis o Toxic shock (STSD) Exotoxin A Rheumatic fever (Rheumatogenic S. pyrogens) o Cell wall M protein, antigen similar to human cell surface antigens (myosin) o antibodies Streptococcus pneumoniae (Fig. 34.3) >90 defined strains Gram + 2/3 multi valent vaccine mostly capsular Penicillin sensitive strains Penicillin resistant strains Some strains are multi-drug resistant
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Corynebacterium diphtheriae (diphtheria) Gram + Colonize throat and tonsils o Inflammation o Pseudomembrane o Diphtheria toxin conferred by lysogenized phage Beta inhibits phage synthesis Treated antibodies and anti-toxins Early childhood immunization Bordetlla pertussis (Whooping Cough) Gram negative filamentous hemagglutinin antigen Upper respiratory tract Transmission by droplet inhalation Pertussis extoxin o Inducing cAMP production Secondary endotoxins Occurrence is increasing, inadequately immunized kids Mycobacterium tuberculosis Fig. 34.9 Gram + Transmitted via talking Waxy cells walls o Mycolic acid-acid fast stained Survive dry state 1-2 months Multi-drug resistant Infects lower respiratory tract Can survive in macrophages Formation of granuloma o Initial infection granuloma super infection Pulmonary tuberculosis Fig. 34.1 o Post primary infection o Permanent loss of function is tissue damage Neisseria meningitides (Meningococcemia meningitis) >13 strains defined Gram negative Also viral, fungal and protozoan 1/3 of population carries it as normal flora Very high mortality rates Endotoxins No effective universal vaccine Easily treatable, IV antibodies Meningitis : inflammation of membranes lining central nervous system DHH: Person-person (physical contact) Direct contact with infected person, blood or excreta Sexual contact o Genitourinary tract
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Staphylococcus epidermidis Non-pigmented species usually found on the skin or mucous membranes
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This note was uploaded on 06/17/2011 for the course BIOL 550 taught by Professor Long during the Fall '10 term at South Carolina.

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bacteria - Bacterial infections and diseases Modes of...

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