Changing%20Perspectives%20on%20International%20Development%20and%20Development%20Education

Changing%20Perspectives%20on%20International%20Development%20and%20Development%20Education

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Unformatted text preview: Changing Perspectives on International Development and Development Education Definitions and Issues Definitions I • Process of cultural engrafting: Borrowing of a complex cultural form to replace or change existing less complex cultural forms. Usually involves both informal education and deliberate instruction. • Westernization: linked to colonization. We often still talk about westernization when we discuss such issues as the “westernization” of the mind. Definitions II • Industrialization: generated new economic, social, and political configurations. Creates distinction between developed and underdeveloped countries (or regions) • Top­Down development and development education: Example: Marshall Plan. Often called Foreign Assistance programs. Agency of International Development (AID). Aid was given to improve: efficiency of the labor process, political stability, formal education, literacy, health care, infrastructure. (continued on next slide) Definitions III • Recipient nation is guided by appropriate leaders within the nation giving aid. The aid is then spread from the top to the bottom. • Green Revolution: development of technologies to increase crop yields through hybridization and rationalized agriculture. Definition IV • Modernization: (as opposed to traditional societies) Modern societies rely on top­down management. Education is firmly based in pragmatism. Knowledge is tentative, dynamic and ends driven. Effectiveness and applicability is valued over traditions and values. – Educational systems are managed top­down. – Focus on infrastructure and effectiveness. – Traditional systems are replaced by modernized systems. – – – – Definitions V • Critics of Top­Down Development: – Illich’s deschooling: here the issue of formal versus informal education is raised. – Freire’s liberation pedagogy: (we have already encountered Freire in “problem­posing”) – Postmodern critiques: postindustrialism drives a need for the development of consciousness of oppression in industrialism and modernization as master discourses. Definitions VI • Bottom­Up Development: – – Deschooling, liberation, and consciousness raising. Issues of diversity, scope, and involvement become essential. Check this out! • Group 1 Surf, discuss, write, share. – Development Challenge English Home Page • Group 2 – DevelopmentEducation.ie • Group 3 – Development Education Association ­ Home • Group 4 – Victoria International Development Education Association ­ Par ...
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