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Unformatted text preview: Changing Perspectives on International Development and Development Education
Definitions and Issues Definitions I
• Process of cultural engrafting: Borrowing of a complex cultural form to replace or change existing less complex cultural forms. Usually involves both informal education and deliberate instruction.
• Westernization: linked to colonization. We often still talk about westernization when we discuss such issues as the “westernization” of the mind. Definitions II
• Industrialization: generated new economic, social, and political configurations. Creates distinction between developed and underdeveloped countries (or regions)
• TopDown development and development education: Example: Marshall Plan. Often called Foreign Assistance programs. Agency of International Development (AID). Aid was given to improve: efficiency of the labor process, political stability, formal education, literacy, health care, infrastructure. (continued on next slide) Definitions III
• Recipient nation is guided by appropriate leaders within the nation giving aid. The aid is then spread from the top to the bottom. • Green Revolution: development of technologies to increase crop yields through hybridization and rationalized agriculture. Definition IV
• Modernization: (as opposed to traditional societies) Modern societies rely on topdown management. Education is firmly based in pragmatism.
Knowledge is tentative, dynamic and ends driven. Effectiveness and applicability is valued over traditions and values. – Educational systems are managed topdown.
– Focus on infrastructure and effectiveness.
– Traditional systems are replaced by modernized systems.
– Definitions V
• Critics of TopDown Development: – Illich’s deschooling: here the issue of formal versus informal education is raised.
– Freire’s liberation pedagogy: (we have already encountered Freire in “problemposing”)
– Postmodern critiques: postindustrialism drives a need for the development of consciousness of oppression in industrialism and modernization as master discourses. Definitions VI
• BottomUp Development:
– Deschooling, liberation, and consciousness raising.
Issues of diversity, scope, and involvement become essential. Check this out!
• Group 1 Surf, discuss, write, share. – Development Challenge English Home Page • Group 2 – DevelopmentEducation.ie • Group 3 – Development Education Association Home • Group 4 – Victoria International Development Education Association Par ...
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- Fall '09