International%20Education0 - Comparative Comparative...

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Unformatted text preview: Comparative Comparative Education Philosophical, theoretical, and historical background Principal assumptions I Principal assumptions I Bifurcation of agenda (what is the purpose of an education system?): Education has both a national and a global agenda. A balance between these two agendas is hard to achieve. National: commitment to shape citizens (loyal, participating). Sputnik (1957) Global: in a increasingly global system (established and emerging issues that go beyond the national, local level), knowledge of global reality and one’s place within it is essential. ISS (1998) Principal Assumptions II: Principal Assumptions II: Nationalism Nationalism Nation­states are a recent development. The nature of nation­states is ever­changing. Nationalism is the ideology that supports a status­ quo within a nation­state, or that provides a reason­to­be for new nation­states (political, ideological, ethnic) Institutions are part of the ideological apparatus of the nation­state. Formal education is such an institution. Principal Assumptions III: Post­ Principal Assumptions III: Post­ Nationalism Fragmentation of experience Inter­dependence European Community and economic crisis: What relationship between local and global issues are established here? Discourses not related to the nation­state replace nationalist ideologies (to a certain degree). outsourcing ABC News clip: What are your thoughts on this? Global warming: What argument is being made in this video? The nation­state, though still in existence, starts to transform into a global entity. This creates competition and struggles within and outside of the national community. Some of these struggles can be seen in educational policies. Comparative Education Comparative Education “studies or examinations of education, including and often emphasizing school systems and structures, and analyzing their similarities and differences” (Gutek , 30) History of comparative education is long and has recently acquired a competitive edge. Sputnik (1957) Nation at Risk (1983) Goals 2000 (1994) No Child Left Behind (2001) International Competition International Competition Standardized Testing – A global trend Programme of International Student Assessment (PISA) Go to the following Website (linked on WebCt) and answer the questions provided in the linked worksheet. Work sheet Work sheet PISA Look at sample tests. What are your perceptions about these tests? What is PISA? What does PISA assess? For what purpose? sample test questions Executive report 2006 What is emphasized in the executive report? Why? Philosophy of international Philosophy of international education Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam (1466­1536) Cosmopolitan Humanism (not limited to a locality, but quintessential strive for the expansion of the human spirit) Education as liberation of the human spirit Erasmus’ Christian Prince vs. Machiavelli’s prince E.’s prince does not need to rely on coercion, since his subjects are in a state of spiritual and intellectual liberation (through education). Assumption of a common good which is inherent in each human being as an a priori category. Schooling liberates this knowledge. M’s prince rules through force and a knowledge of the greater good (lies within him). He rules subjects who are ignorant and incapable of recognizing the greater good. Schooling for the subjectsbecomes a means of control, rather than a liberating of the soul. E.: war is a plague that spreads like an infection. Conflicts need to be resolved through impartial tribunals consisting of educated individuals. M.: War is means to an end. Philosophy Philosophy Comenius (Pansophism) (1592­1670) Thirty years war: 1618­1648 Knowledge comes form good and humans can “understand” through universal knowledge. Universal knowledge is based on common needs and qualities inherent in every group/individual. Group differences become inconsequential in the face of such commonalities. Education serves as an agency for human enlightenment about universal/common characteristics. Philosophy Philosophy Rabindranath Tagore (1861­1941) National culture is the basis for understanding universals. Students need to see how their culture is a manifestation of a spiritually endowed universe and how other cultures do the same. Through international education, humankind develops a greater unity as well as an appreciation for national culture. Philosophy Philosophy Maria Montessori (1870­1952) Socio­historical context: growing bifurcation between the middle class and the working class in Italy. Italian Fascism. Education is based on universal developmental stages, not on national or cultural origin. Montessori education is based on the idea that any child can develop according to its nature regardless of class or national origin. Education for the masses. Idea of the New Woman. Education is communal. Contemporary ideas of international Contemporary ideas of international education. Education is a means to become aware of the individual’s role in the world. (Taylor, Boulding) Teacher education needs to be international education (Taylor) International education creates as new world order (Boulding) and a new way of looking at the world (Melvin) which is based on the idea of “Idealpolitik” rather than the pursuit of indvidualized agendas (“Realpolitik”). International education today looks International education today looks like…. Comparative education (often competitive) Development education Peace education: reformist (adapt existing behaviors behaviors, work with what you have), recontructionist (use viable parts to build something new), transformational (drastic changes in institutions, belief systems and consciousness) Global education: focus is on global society, emphasis on the nation­state is only relevant in the context of global issues. Gutek’s “international Gutek’s “international education” Emphasis both on nation­states and on global issues. Focus on education in general (not only formal) Focus on emerging trends Quiz 1 (Gutek, chapter 2) Quiz 1 (Gutek, chapter 2) Choose one of the following two questions. Answer the chosen question in complete sentences in an essay format. You may use your notes. Time limit: 15 minutes. 1. What are some of the tensions between education for the nation­state and education for global society? To enhance your discussion, you may provide an example from previous observations or your own experiences in school, where you can see these tensions. 2. Describe the differences and similarities between two philosophers/theorists of education in relation to their approach to international education. To enhance your discussion you may give examples of the schools/curricula you would consider appropriate for each author you discussed. ...
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