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Assessment%20Process%20%26%20FBA%20Current - Assessment...

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Unformatted text preview: Assessment Process & Assessment Functional Assessment of Behavior Review.. Review.. • Explain A-B-A • Explain A-B-C-D-E-F • What single-subject design model is most used in What classroom settings? classroom • Independent Variable • Dependent Variable • What factors contribute to choosing a singlesubject design model Assessment Process Assessment Recall: Process of Assessment in Special Education Child Find Prereferral Screening ECSE Referral Process Entitlement Decision PostEntitlement Domains: Academic Behavior MDC IEP or IFSP Physical On-Going Assessments Accountability & Reprogramming Reasons for Referral to Special Education Reasons • Reasons for Referral • Academic Academic • Behavior Behavior • Physical/Medical Is the process of referral objective or subjective? Website to use Website • Functional Behavior Form • On WebCT, day 7 Behavioral Concerns Behavioral • Ineffective Instruction (often overlooked) • Ineffective Classroom Management • Individual Differences Individual • Lack of Supervision • Student has other Ecological Concerns Student Ecological • (i.e., cultural concerns, primary needs) • Student has TRUE psychological and/or behavioral concerns Student 7 Step Assessment Process Step (as presented in Zirpoli, 2008) 1. Decide if a problem exists 1. Determine if intervention is warranted 1. Define Medical or Psychological Reasons 1. Conduct Functional Assessment Conduct Functional 1. Determine if it’s a result of a skill or performance deficit 1. Develop intervention 1. Ongoing Evaluation • Things to Do (same as previous slide only in layman’s terms) Define the problem behavior. Devise a plan to collect data. Compare and analyze the data. Formulate the hypothesis. Develop and implement a behavior intervention plan. Monitor the plan. How Behavior Relates to Formal & Functional Assessment How Concerning behavior.. IEP in Place or Prereferral Process Yes, need Referral Process What’s up? Functional Behavior Assessment Behavioral Intervention Plan Special Education Assessment Process Eligibility Determination IEP: Yes or No BIP: Yes or No Indicates possibility Functional Assessment of Behavior or Functional Behavioral Assessment or As defined… As • “a process for gathering information that process can be used to maximize the effectiveness and efficiency of behavioral support” (p. 3) (O’Neil et al.) (O’Neil • “.. analytical and systematic process that .. helps us understand behavior by developing a hypothesis” about the behavior. (Mueller, Jenson, Reavis, & Andrews, 2002) (p. 23) Jenson, Remember Remember • For suspensions beyond 10 school days, the For student’s IEP team must determine the need to conduct a FBA and develop a BIP • There needs to be documentation if a FBA is There not to be conducted. not • If a BIP is already in effect, the IEP team If must review the existing BIP to recommend any revisions that may be necessary. any Outcomes of FBA Outcomes The simple goal: • To define performance and/or skill deficits • To learn the purpose (or function) of the To behavior… to get/gain something or to get away behavior to from something. from O’Neil, Horner, Albin, Sprague, Storey, & Newton (1997) define Five Outcomes Functional Behavioral Assessment: Outcomes 1. A clear description of the problem behavior 1. Identification of antecedents 1. Identifications of consequences 1. Development of summary statements (hypotheses) 1. Collection of data that support hypotheses FBA Four Step Process FBA 1. Describe (Define) the Behavior 1. Collect needed data 1. Develop hypothesis 1. Design interventions The process does not include implementing The interventions—why? interventions—why? Some Data Collection Methods Some • Observation • Interviews Interviews • Checklist & Rating Scales (formal & informal) • • • • Teacher Self Parent Other • Sociometric Ratings – be careful Review.. Review.. • What are the main goals of a What functional behavioral assessment? • What are the two main functions of What behavior? behavior? • Why is it important to identity the Why function of the behavior? function Recalling Functional Assessment of Behavior… Recalling Goal: To define the function of the behavior, the maintaining consequences, deficit type, and eventually replace the behavior with a more acceptable behavior that achieves the function. Process: • Describe the Behavior Describe • Collect needed data • Develop hypothesis • Design interventions Defining Target Behaviors (recall) Defining • Avoid biased information.. Don’t go in so focused Avoid you miss the bigger picture. you • Observable- can be witnessed (examples) • Telling the teacher to “f#%k off” loud enough Telling for classmates to hear. for • Standing out the west entrance of the school Standing non-verbally refusing to come into the building non-verbally • Measurable- can be counted • 10 times throughout the day • Lasting 23 minutes 26 seconds Data Collection (slide 1 of 2) (slide • Where should it be collected? Where • Ecological model- where & why? • Who should be involved in data collection? • Recall Dimensions of Behavior: Recall • • • • Frequency/Rate (10 times in a day) Duration (23 minutes 26 secs) Latency (23 minutes 26 secs) Intensity (dent in the locker) Data Collection (slide 2 of 2) (slide • How much data is enough? • Depends on behavior • Repeating behavior that forms a Repeating trend (what’s a trend?) (what’s • Presenting Data (visual representationPresenting graph) graph) Darrell’s “F” you (AB) chart… Darrell’s 30 Baseline (A) Intervention (B) 25 20 15 10 5 0 day 1 day 2 day 3 day 4 day 5 day 6 day 7 day 8 day 9 day 10 (The baseline phase or “condition A” is where FBA is taking place) Developing the hypothesis… Developing • Data should lead you to the hypothesis. If data does not lead Data you to a hypothesis.. • you need more data and/or you • may need a different form of measurement and/or may • redefine your behavior • Although literature presents hypothesis building as a “separate” Although process from data collection it may overlap the two steps. • List all feasible functions (prioritize) • • • to gain X.. to get away from or avoid Y.. to Discuss with team members-- Collaboration is the KEY! Developing the Hypothesis Developing • List all possible antecedents and consequences with related List functions functions • Again, discuss with team members • Eliminate unfounded items • Develop Hypotheses Based on Data Develop • Have to be observable and measurable • Example: X does Y to get Z Example: to • What happens with multiple hypotheses? • Can you work will multiple hypotheses? • How many hypotheses is too many to work with? Functional Analysis.. Functional • A functional analysis consists of the systematic functional manipulation of variables linked to the behavior (O’Neil et al. 1997). (O’Neil • Functional Analysis may be part of a Functional Functional may Assessment... Not all behaviors require analysis.. why is this? analysis.. • A functional analysis is done functional when_____________________________ . when_____________________________ Example 1 Merlinda is a preschool student who likes her teacher’s attention. When Merlinda is getting ready for sharing time, she often pokes or kicks other students. Her instructor responds by putting Merlinda on her lap. But over time, the instructor notices that Merlinda’s behavior is increasing rather than going away. To solve this problem, the instructor may do any of the following: ✍ Stop putting Merlinda on the instructor’s lap when Merlinda misbehaves. ✍ Give Merlinda lots of attention when she keeps her hands and feet to herself. ✍ Mark seating spaces for all the children. ✍ Teach Merlinda to politely ask others to move. Example 2 Silvia, a 14-year-old student with severe disabilities, often refuses to let go of her favorite objects when participating in activities. This behavior particularly interferes with her ability to work. To solve this problem, her work instructor may: ✍ Modify the work activities by giving Silvia one-third of the usual number of items to sort. ✍ Praise Silvia when she puts her favorite objects down to work. ✍ Give Silvia time away from the task with her favorite objects if she works faster. ✍ As a replacement behavior, teach Silvia Analysis* Analysis* Functional Assessment H1 H2 H3 Test H1 Test H2 Test H3 H2 True Effective Intervention *Not always needed. Analysis* The Process of Analysis The • How is analysis done? • Systematic manipulation of stimuli hypothesized to be associated to the behavior be • Testing of ABC + F Testing • • • A=antecedents B=student’s behavior C=consequences • What is the purpose of this behavior? Group Practice.. Group A B C Student X Aggression toward teacher or peers before math class A = Antecedent Define Some Possible purposes… B = Behavior How could we test the purposes? C = Consequence After Functional Assessment (& if needed an analysis) (& • You should know.. • • • ABC Function(s)- Primary Function Deficit Type • Skill Deficit • Performance Deficit • How does this information guide your How interventions? interventions? About Interventions.. About • Remember Goal: REPLACE with more socially acceptable behavior. • What … did you think a sticker or piece of candy would change What everything? everything? • Interventions should be based on primary causes of behavior. • Can this always be done? • Skill Deficit Needs • Remember when developing interventions• Least intrusive is always 1st! Least • Legality of intervention ...
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