Unformatted text preview: Assessment Process &
Functional Assessment of Behavior Review..
• Explain A-B-A
• Explain A-B-C-D-E-F
• What single-subject design model is most used in
• Independent Variable
• Dependent Variable
• What factors contribute to choosing a singlesubject design model Assessment Process
Assessment Recall: Process of Assessment in Special
Find Prereferral Screening ECSE Referral
Decision PostEntitlement Domains:
Behavior MDC IEP or IFSP Physical On-Going
Reprogramming Reasons for Referral to Special Education
Reasons • Reasons for Referral • Academic
• Physical/Medical Is the process of referral objective or subjective? Website to use
• Functional Behavior Form
• On WebCT, day 7 Behavioral Concerns
• Ineffective Instruction (often overlooked) • Ineffective Classroom Management • Individual Differences
Individual • Lack of Supervision • Student has other Ecological Concerns
• (i.e., cultural concerns, primary needs) • Student has TRUE psychological and/or behavioral concerns
Student 7 Step Assessment Process
(as presented in Zirpoli, 2008)
1. Decide if a problem exists
1. Determine if intervention is warranted
1. Define Medical or Psychological Reasons
1. Conduct Functional Assessment
1. Determine if it’s a result of a skill or performance deficit
1. Develop intervention
1. Ongoing Evaluation • Things to Do (same as previous slide only in layman’s terms) Define the problem behavior.
Devise a plan to collect data.
Compare and analyze the data.
Formulate the hypothesis.
Develop and implement a behavior intervention plan.
Monitor the plan. How Behavior Relates to Formal & Functional Assessment
IEP in Place or Prereferral
Process Yes, need Referral
Process What’s up?
Assessment Behavioral Intervention
Plan Special Education
Assessment Process Eligibility Determination
IEP: Yes or No
BIP: Yes or No
Indicates possibility Functional Assessment of Behavior
or Functional Behavioral Assessment
• “a process for gathering information that
can be used to maximize the effectiveness
and efficiency of behavioral support” (p. 3)
(O’Neil et al.)
• “.. analytical and systematic process that
helps us understand behavior by developing a
hypothesis” about the behavior. (Mueller,
Jenson, Reavis, & Andrews, 2002) (p. 23)
• For suspensions beyond 10 school days, the
student’s IEP team must determine the need
to conduct a FBA and develop a BIP
• There needs to be documentation if a FBA is
not to be conducted.
• If a BIP is already in effect, the IEP team
must review the existing BIP to recommend
any revisions that may be necessary.
any Outcomes of FBA
Outcomes The simple goal:
• To define performance and/or skill deficits
• To learn the purpose (or function) of the
behavior… to get/gain something or to get away
from O’Neil, Horner, Albin, Sprague, Storey, & Newton (1997) define Five
Outcomes Functional Behavioral Assessment:
Outcomes 1. A clear description of the problem behavior 1. Identification of antecedents 1. Identifications of consequences 1. Development of summary statements (hypotheses) 1. Collection of data that support hypotheses FBA Four Step Process
1. Describe (Define) the Behavior
1. Collect needed data
1. Develop hypothesis
1. Design interventions The process does not include implementing
interventions—why? Some Data Collection Methods
• Checklist & Rating Scales (formal & informal)
Other • Sociometric Ratings – be careful Review..
• What are the main goals of a
functional behavioral assessment?
• What are the two main functions of
• Why is it important to identity the
function of the behavior?
function Recalling Functional Assessment of Behavior…
Goal: To define the function of the behavior,
the maintaining consequences, deficit type, and
eventually replace the behavior with a more
acceptable behavior that achieves the function.
• Describe the Behavior
Describe • Collect needed data • Develop hypothesis • Design interventions Defining Target Behaviors (recall)
• Avoid biased information.. Don’t go in so focused
you miss the bigger picture.
• Observable- can be witnessed (examples)
• Telling the teacher to “f#%k off” loud enough
for classmates to hear.
• Standing out the west entrance of the school
non-verbally refusing to come into the building
• Measurable- can be counted
• 10 times throughout the day
• Lasting 23 minutes 26 seconds Data Collection (slide 1 of 2)
• Where should it be collected?
• Ecological model- where & why?
• Who should be involved in data collection? • Recall Dimensions of Behavior:
• Frequency/Rate (10 times in a day)
Duration (23 minutes 26 secs)
Latency (23 minutes 26 secs)
Intensity (dent in the locker) Data Collection (slide 2 of 2)
• How much data is enough?
• Depends on behavior
• Repeating behavior that forms a
trend (what’s a trend?)
• Presenting Data (visual representationPresenting
graph) Darrell’s “F” you (AB) chart…
30 Baseline (A) Intervention (B) 25
day 1 day 2 day 3 day 4 day 5 day 6 day 7 day 8 day 9 day 10 (The baseline phase or “condition A” is where FBA is taking place) Developing the hypothesis…
• Data should lead you to the hypothesis. If data does not lead
you to a hypothesis..
• you need more data and/or
• may need a different form of measurement and/or
• redefine your behavior • Although literature presents hypothesis building as a “separate”
process from data collection it may overlap the two steps. • List all feasible functions (prioritize)
• • to gain X..
to get away from or avoid Y..
to Discuss with team members-- Collaboration is the KEY! Developing the Hypothesis
• List all possible antecedents and consequences with related
• Again, discuss with team members
• Eliminate unfounded items • Develop Hypotheses Based on Data
• Have to be observable and measurable
• Example: X does Y to get Z
to • What happens with multiple hypotheses?
• Can you work will multiple hypotheses?
• How many hypotheses is too many to work with? Functional Analysis..
• A functional analysis consists of the systematic
manipulation of variables linked to the behavior
(O’Neil et al. 1997).
• Functional Analysis may be part of a Functional
Assessment... Not all behaviors require
analysis.. why is this?
• A functional analysis is done
when_____________________________ Example 1
Merlinda is a preschool student who likes her teacher’s attention. When
Merlinda is getting ready for sharing time, she often pokes or kicks other
students. Her instructor responds by putting Merlinda on her lap. But over
time, the instructor notices that Merlinda’s behavior is increasing rather than
going away. To solve this problem, the instructor may do any of the
✍ Stop putting Merlinda on the instructor’s
lap when Merlinda misbehaves.
✍ Give Merlinda lots of attention when she
keeps her hands and feet to herself.
✍ Mark seating spaces for all the children.
✍ Teach Merlinda to politely ask others to move. Example 2
Silvia, a 14-year-old student with severe disabilities, often refuses
to let go of her favorite objects when participating in activities.
This behavior particularly interferes with her ability to work. To
solve this problem, her work instructor may:
✍ Modify the work activities by giving Silvia one-third of the
usual number of items to sort.
✍ Praise Silvia when she puts her favorite objects down to
✍ Give Silvia time away from the task with her favorite
objects if she works faster.
✍ As a replacement behavior, teach Silvia Analysis*
Assessment H1 H2 H3 Test
True Effective Intervention *Not always needed. Analysis* The Process of Analysis
• How is analysis done?
• Systematic manipulation of stimuli hypothesized to
be associated to the behavior
• Testing of ABC + F
C=consequences • What is the purpose of this behavior? Group Practice..
Group A B C Student X
teacher or peers
before math class
A = Antecedent Define Some Possible purposes… B = Behavior How could we test the purposes? C = Consequence After Functional Assessment
(& if needed an analysis)
• You should know..
Function(s)- Primary Function
• Skill Deficit
• Performance Deficit • How does this information guide your
interventions? About Interventions..
• Remember Goal: REPLACE with more socially acceptable behavior.
• What … did you think a sticker or piece of candy would change
everything? • Interventions should be based on primary causes of behavior.
• Can this always be done? • Skill Deficit Needs • Remember when developing interventions• Least intrusive is always 1st!
• Legality of intervention ...
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- Spring '11
- Psychology, Functional Behavioral Assessment, Functional Assessment of Behavior