day%202%20legislation%20and%20theorists - NCATE...

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Unformatted text preview: NCATE Dispositions NCATE • Two dispositions that must be Two remembered: remembered: • BELIEVE ALL CHILDREN CAN LEARN • SOCIAL EQUITY AND JUSTICE Assignment Assignment • Write down 3 questions to ask the Write cooperating teacher about your students to help in identifying a behavior or academic behavior to target in practica. behavior • Write down 3 questions to ask your students Write to get to know them and what might be reinforcing for them to increase a behavior. Legislation/Theorists Legislation/Theorists (Mithaug, Martin, Agran, and Rusch, 1988; (Mithaug, Culatta and Tompkins, 1999; Behavior Analysis in Education, 1994; Polloway and Analysis Education 1994; Patton, 1997; SRI International, 1995; Yell, SRI International 1995; 1998) 1998) Public Law 94-142 (1975): Education for All Handicapped Children Act Education • Ages 3-21 • Zero Reject • Non-discriminatory Evaluation • Individualized Education Program (IEP) • Free and Appropriate Education (FAPE) in (LRE) • Due Process • Parental Participation Problems (Follow-up Studies) Problems • Post school outcome reports in mid 1980s • 1/3 of youth failed at least one course • 1/3 youth left school by dropping out • More than 85% of youth out of school had not attended a post More secondary school secondary • Annual incomes of less than 12,000 per year • Unemployment rate was at least three times the national Unemployment average average • Most students lived out of the home Move to Inclusion Move • 3 Different Perspectives • Academic Benefits • Social Benefits • Morally Wrong to Exclude Any Population of People From the Morally Mainstream Mainstream • SOCIAL EQUITY AND JUSTICE • Question today is how to provide the best education for all children in Question the classroom the • So no one has to leave. Amendments to PL 94-142 Amendments • Public Law 101-476 (1990) • IDEA • Disabilities instead of Handicaps • Autism and Traumatic Brain Injury • Individualized Transition Plan More Amendments More • Greater Access to General Education • Parental Rights • Public Law 105-17 (1997) • • • • • Increased Parental Participation General Educator Participation IEP Teams Make Decisions IEP Changes IEP Components IDEA PL 108-446 (2004) IDEA • Kept Manifestation Determination • Case-by-case in change of placement • 10-day max suspension • Continue educational services that give access to general education Continue curriculum and progress toward IEP goals. curriculum • FBA, behavioral intervention services and modifications to address FBA, behavior behavior • 10 days to review all information for change of 10 placement (LEA, parents, relevant members) placement • If manifestation, then need to do: • Functional Behavior Analysis (FBA) • Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP) • Interim alternative settings 45 SCHOOL DAYS • Serious Bodily injury definition changed. (4)(i) Emotional disturbance means a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child’s educational performance: (A) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors. (B) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers. (C) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances. (D) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression. (E) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems. (ii) Emotional disturbance includes schizophrenia. The term does not apply to children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they have an emotional disturbance under paragraph (c)(4)(i) of this section. Public Act 89-191 Public • Intent of Policy • Level I - Nonrestrictive Interventions • Also called Least Restrictive and Moderately Restrictive • Must be documented in the IEP or the Behavior Management Plan Must (BIP) (BIP) • Level II - Restrictive Interventions • Should only be used after: • A functional analysis of behavior has been completed • A behavioral management Plan has been written • The IEP is amended to address behavior. • Level III - Highly Restrictive Interventions • Deemed inappropriate for use in most Deemed circumstances circumstances • Level IV - Prohibited Interventions • These interventions are either illegal or not These acceptable acceptable • They cannot be used under any circumstances. Nonrestrictive Interventions Nonrestrictive • Calling and notifying parent • Written contract • Direct instruction • Modeling • Environmental or activity Environmental modification modification • Prompting • Teaching self control • Token economy • Verbal feedback • • • Self management Verbal redirection Proximity control Restrictive Interventions Restrictive Detention (before Detention and/or after school, weekend) weekend) • Exclusion from Exclusion extracurricular activities extracurricular • Suspension (in school) Forced physical Forced guidance guidance Suspension (out of Suspension school) school) • Physical restraint Response cost • • • • Highly Restrictive Interventions Highly • Isolated time out area • Isolated time out room Isolated (in accordance with state regulations) state • Expulsion (in Expulsion accordance with state / federal regulations) federal Prohibited Interventions Prohibited • Corporal punishment • Expulsion with Expulsion cessation of services cessation • Electric (faradic) skin Electric shock shock • Intentional infliction of Intentional bodily harm bodily • Aversive mists • Physical manipulation Physical or procedure that causes pain and/or tissue damage when used as an aversive procedure procedure • Coercion, threats, Coercion, intimidation, and/or bullying of students bullying Behavior Management Plan (should have following features) (should • Functional Analysis of Behavior • Previous Interventions • Interventions to Develop • Descriptions of Restrictive Interventions • List Behavior Changes Expected • Schedule of Review • Provisions for Coordinating with Home Senate Bill (SB) 141 Senate • Calls for behavioral interventions to be used Calls • “iin consideration of the pupil’s physical freedom n and social interaction and be administered in a manner that respects human dignity and personal privacy and that ensures a pupil’s right to placement in the least restrictive educational environment.” environment.” Behavior Management Plan Behavior • Behavior management plan is required for any Behavior student with a disability who exhibits a pattern of behavior which significantly interferes with learning or requires emergency use of Level III or Level IV intervention more than twice in a 30 calendar day period period • Examples • Level 3 - time out (isolation); suspension; physical restraint • Level 4 - expulsion; mechanical restraint Components of a Behavior Management Plan Behavior • Functional analysis • Description of restrictive Description interventions to be used interventions • Description of previously Description used interventions used • Expected behavioral Expected changes changes • Schedule for reviewing Schedule efficacy of intervention efficacy • • Description of Description interventions to be used to strengthen more appropriate behaviors appropriate Coordinate with home • http:// .&US&-1&News&180&&&new Theorists Theorists Early 1900’s Early • Pavlov – Classical Conditioning • John Watson – terming “behaviorism” • Thorndike – Connectionism Mid 1900’s Mid • B.F. Skinner – Operant conditioning • Bandura – Social Learning Theory Pavlov Pavlov • Classical Conditioning • A stimuli reflex response … Reflex is the KEY! • The association of preexisting behavior with a new stimulus. • Dog connection bell to salivation • Conditioned reflex • Relationship between stimulus and reflex response • Outside stimulus paired to produce reflex response Watson Watson • Inspired by Pavlov • Conducted studies on small animals. • Termed concept of behaviorism … first to use the term “behaviorist” • Understanding behavior through observable actions • Thought of animals (including humans) as complex machines. • Programmed by experiences • Noted that heredity had little to do with determining behavior • Left the field of behavior … better known in advertising/marketing Thorndike Thorndike • Connectionism • Behavior learned through trial and error • Learning comes from the formation of associations Learning between stimulus and response. between • We learn what is right or wrong based on these We associations. associations. • Association of behavior and consequence through trial Association and error and • Law of effect • If a behavior brings a desired effect then the behavior is more If likely to occur again. likely • Rewarding consequence strengthens behavior • Law of exercise • the more one continues an act the more one associates with the consequence (or outcome). • Can work in reverse • The further away one is from acting a certain way the less they The associate the consequence. associate • Connections strengthened between stimulus & response if Connections practiced practiced Skinner Skinner • Changes in stimulus can affect behavior • The overt events (stimuli) to an environment contribute to the The changes in behavior changes • Classified events as antecedents or consequences • Antecedents … the events prior to the behavior • Consequences … the action that takes place after the behavior • Examples … • I ask a question. You respond incorrectly. I say “No, you stupid idiot! ask How did you get into college? Read the course materials BEFORE you come to class! Maybe then you will have a clue!” you • I ask a question. You respond incorrectly. I say “Let’s take a minute ask to figure this out.” • Operant conditioning • Changing consequences and develop new Changing behaviors or strengthen or weaken • Relationship between consequence and Relationship behavior behavior • Manipulating or changing a consequence Manipulating to be reinforcer or punishment will increase or decrease behavior or Bandura Bandura • Psychology of behavior • Social Learning Theory • Highlights the continual interaction between one’s Highlights cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences. cognitive, • Relationship between behavior & cognition • Intermixes conditioning (classical and operant), Intermixes cognition, and social development cognition, • Essentially, it deals with the modeling of Essentially, behaviors/attitudes and their affects on others. behaviors/attitudes • Behavior may be learned from observations and modeling • Behavior observed, retained, produced • People are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior if it is noted to People produce a desired outcome. produce • Example … Advertisers trying to sell you something by showing Example you all of the perks (good looks, fun, excitement, sex, etc) that come with owning a product. come • Personal self-control Behavior Therapy Behavior Don’t try these without further training. • Systematic Desensitization • • • The systematic pairing of anxiety stimuli and anti-anxiety based stimuli. The The hope is that the anxiety will eventually be substituted with the anti-anxiety stimuli. The Flooding • The over representation of anxiety-causing stimuli. • The theory is that the level of anxiety will eventually wear out. • Aversion Therapy • Pairing aversive stimuli with other (many times addictive) stimuli (i.e., feeling sick Pairing [handover] with alcohol). • This therapy is reliant on the fact that an association between the two is built thus making the This other less desirable. other Applied Behavior Analysis Applied • The systematic use of behavioral The modification principles in real-world settings. settings. • Applied behavioral analysis uses Applied quantitative data to rate the effectiveness of the used techniques. effectiveness What we’ve discussed … What • Antecedent • Behavior • Consequence What does it mean? ...
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