Unformatted text preview: NCATE Dispositions
NCATE Two that we will always remember: BELIEVE ALL CHILDREN CAN LEARN SOCIAL EQUITY AND JUSTICE Increasing Appropriate Behavior:
Increasing Reinforcements Quote of the Day
You’re braver than you believe, and
stronger than you seem
And smarter than you think!
Christopher Robin to Pooh Reinforcement
Reinforcement Any stimulus that maintains or increases the behavior exhibited
immediately prior to the presentation of the stimulus
immediately A consequence that follows a behavior that strengthens the behavior. Formally … The process in which the occurrence of a behavior is
followed by a consequence that results in an increase in the future
probability of the behavior.
probability Consequence must maintain or increase the behavior in terms of its rate,
frequency, duration, and/or intensity
If it does not, then the consequence is not considered to be reinforcement Simplistically … Any stimulus that maintains or increases the
behavior exhibited immediately prior to the presentation of the
stimulus Positive Reinforcement Presentation of a stimulus following a behavior
that increases or maintains that behavior
that The “Grandma’s Rule”
The “When you complete your dinner, you may have a
piece of chocolate pie”.
piece Why use positive reinforcement in the
classroom? An effective way of improving the overall
behavior of all students in the classroom
behavior Must properly match reinforcements to the student Three types of Group-Oriented Contingencies (positive reinforcements)
Group-Oriented Contingency Definition Each student earns
reward based on
their own behavior Pros
•No student is penalized
for the behavior of
anyone else Cons •Peer pressure is unlikely
to be harnessed •Each student has access
to rewards under exactly
the same terms. Dependent
Group-Oriented Contingency Interdependent
Group-Oriented Contingency Reinforcement of
entire group is
contingent upon one
the group is
contingent on the
behavior of the
whole class •The target student
•Peers may root the target
pressure which occurs
naturally in the classroom
is used to encourage
choices •The target student may
get negative attention if
he/she fails to earn the
reward. •Scapegoating may occur.
•Students may blame one
student for the class not
earning the reward.
•One student may
sabotage earning the
reward for the whole
group. Negative Reinforcement
Negative Removal of a stimulus following a behavior that
increases or maintains that behavior
increases Aaron is a 14-year-old learner with an identified learning disability. School has
served as a constant source of frustration for him over the past several years.
This is especially the case in math.
He is in a prealgebra class and receives some tutoring and assistance from the
resource teacher; but is struggling in the regular classroom.
Upon receiving his problems to complete during class, he attempts a few and then
becomes increasingly frustrated, shouting swearwords about how he thinks the
work is useless resulting in an exchange of verbal jabs between him and his
teacher, resulting in Aaron being sent to the principal’s office.
teacher, Remember … the relationships among the type
of reinforcement, stimulus, and outcome for
target behavior are as follows:
Reinforcement Stimulus Target
Behavior Positive Presented Increases Negative Removed Increases Types of Reinforcers
Types Primary Reinforcers Edibles … food and drink preferences Token … this category includes token reinforcers
that can be exchanged for a specific reinforcer that
is valued by the learner
is Interest Inventory
Interest Secondary Reinforcers Stimuli that are not naturally reinforcing Value learned by pairing with a primary reinforcer Example: When a preschool teacher pairs giving verbal praise (a potential
secondary reinforcer) with delivering a glass of juice (a primary
reinforcer) to a young child, the verbal praise takes on some of the
reinforcement value associated with the glass of juice.
reinforcement Purpose is to fade out the use of juice as a reinforcer and
fade in the value of verbal praise.
fade Socially Valid Reinforcers Social … includes social praise, conversation, hugs,
smiles, social attention, and eye contact.
smiles, These can be used individually or within an entire class Tangible … preferred items such as toys, personal
possessions, and clothing
possessions, Activity … preferred activities enjoyed by the
individual within work, play, and leisure-time
Rubber stamps Check marks
Verbal Praise Activities Choice time
Spend time with
Read a story
Student of the day
Pass out materials
First in line
Feed class pet
Leader of the day
Phone call home
Listen to tape
Activity leader Identifying Reinforcers
Identifying When constructing an intervention plan, it is important to list
those reinforcers that have been effective in the past
those Perform a review of past educational records for past items that were used How to identify reinforcers for a specific learner … Ask the parents and family of the learner what he enjoys most … favorite
toy, activity, social amenity, or other.
toy, Ask the learner what he enjoys most Provide the learner with choice
Provide Allow him to select their preferred reinforcers from a reinforcer menu Present various items and allow them to choose
Present Principles of Effective Reinforcement
Principles Reinforcement must be contingent Clear and concise guidelines (rules) concerning classroom
behavior need to be established with contingencies being
clearly explained to all learners.
clearly Allows the learner to understand expectations and consequences
associated with desired behavior
associated Contingent reinforcement A relationship between a response and a consequence in which the
consequence is presented if and only if the response occurs
consequence Reinforcement needs to be immediate When a teacher asks a child to complete a task, the teacher
must administer the appropriate reinforcer immediately
following performance of the behavior
following Establishing operations will increase the value of the
reinforcer Deprivation Reinforcer more effective when an individual has been deprived of it
for a substantial period of time
for Satiation When a previously reinforcing consequence loses its value and is
therefore no longer reinforcing
therefore Intensity of the reinforcer will result in more
effective Individuals will be more likely to expend greater
amounts of effort if the yield in terms of
reinforcement is greater.
reinforcement Intensity associated with the consequence could be: The enjoyment they derive from it The increased social attention that they receive
The The generalized emotional and social fulfillment they
The Schedules of Reinforcement
Schedules Schedules Two major terms related to reinforcement Continuous reinforcement Schedule Intermittent reinforcement Schedule Continuous Reinforcement Schedule Occurs when a target response is repeatedly reinforced
following its occurrence
following The teacher praises Jake each time he attempts and completes a math
problem. Most frequently used when learner is attempting to learn a new
skill Easily used by parents and teachers alike Used when the goal of the instructional program is to increase
reinforcement during these first learning stages.
reinforcement Used until natural consequences associated with completion of
the task successfully will become reinforcing enough
the Intermittent reinforcement schedule Used during the fluency and maintenance building stages of
learning Fluency … the ability of an individual to perform a skill or behavior
with minimal or no assistance at a reasonably fast rate with few or no
errors. Promotes ongoing refinement of the skill and performance
maintenance of the skill or behavior over time.
maintenance Consists of four different types of schedules: Fixed ratio, variable ratio, interval, and variable interval Ratio schedules are associated with an average number of responses Interval schedules are connected to periods of time Fixed Ratio Schedule Consist of reinforcing a behavior contingent on an established number of
occurrences of that behavior (FR4, FR10)
occurrences Reinforcing child every time behavior occurs.
Reinforcing Continuous schedule. Very effective within classroom settings. Variable Ratio Schedule Reinforcement is delivered following an average number of behavior
occurrences (VR3, VR10)
occurrences Make sure not to “tip off” the learner as to when the reinforcement will be
administered Can be used in school settings related to the performance of academic tasks Administer reinforcement based on a range of responses. Fixed Interval Schedule Consist of reinforcing a behavior after an established interval
of time has elapsed – Child reinforced following a specific interval of time
Child Contingent on a target behavior occurring during the interval FI10 - every 10 consecutive minutes of appropriate behavior, child is
given Variable Interval Schedule Reinforcement is delivered following an average interval of
time VI10, reinforcing child an average of every 10 minutes Reinforcement Strategies
Shaping Refers to the reinforcement of successive approximations of
a terminal behavior
terminal Successive approximation …
Successive Any intermediate behavior that is either a prerequisite component of
the final behavior or a higher order member of the same response
topography as the final behavior
topography Applied incrementally as the behavior more closely resembles the
terminal behavior you are trying to teach
terminal Chaining Refers to the performance of a series or sequence of
behaviors rather than just one independent behavior
behaviors Involves a sequence of related steps or behaviors or discriminative
stimuli (SDS) and responses (Rs) that are linked together When children arrive home from school, their parents might have a
routine comprised of a sequence of behaviors that must be accomplished.
Each activity can be taught individually or can be linked and taught as a
sequence or behavior chain.
sequence How does this apply to a school setting? Arriving at school and attending the first-hour class Before a chain can be taught, it is important to develop a task
analysis Task analysis … a method designed to break down a complex behavior
into small components or steps
into Can be used with academic skills, social skills, and functional self-help
skills Steps to Task Analysis Observe others performing the skill Write down the essential steps of the task Perform the skill yourself, noting the chain of discriminative stimuli and
responses that comprise the task
responses Validate the sequencing in a task analysis. Methods used to Validate the
Sequencing in a Task Analysis
Sequencing The behaviors required in the sequence are developed after observation of
others performing the task.
others Consultations with experts or persons who are recognized for their abilities in
performing the task are conducted
performing Perform the task yourself to aid in refining the movements and sequence that
are required for optimal performance of the entire task
are Sequence the steps in a task analysis in the same order as they will be
performed Behaviors in a task analysis can be listed in order of difficulty proceeding from
less difficult to more difficult.
less Types of Chaining
Types Total Task Presentation Chaining Allows the student to attempt each step in the task analysis from
beginning to end
beginning Teacher provides the necessary instructional assistance in the form of
instructional cues (verbal, gestural, and physical prompts) as needed to
complete the sequence of behaviors
complete Used with such chaining as:
Used Feeding oneself, using utensils, drinking from a cup, swinging a gulf club
or tennis racket.
or As student becomes proficient, teacher can begin to fade the use of
Activity Take one of the previous chaining activities
and write the necessary instructional assistance
in the form of instructions cues (verbal,
gestural, and physical prompts) as needed to
complete the sequence of behaviors.
complete Forward Chaining Teaching each behavior link, starting with the first link and
moving to the next link until all is taught
May involve teaching more than one step at a time Backward Chaining Teaching each behavior in the link starting with the last
link and moving in a descending order
link Successful with such behaviors as dressing, grooming, and feeding Strategies
Strategies Token Economy Is a symbolic reinforcement system.
Is Children receive tokens for specific appropriate
behavior, which maybe exchanged for objects or
activities that have been identified as reinforcing.
activities Reasons for Effectiveness of Token Economies Tokens or points can be given immediately to be exchanged
for reinforcers later
for Tokens or points act as visual evidence of the progress the
student is making
student The value of tokens is unaffected by the mood of the person
delivering the tokens
delivering Students are less likely to satiate on any one reinforcer
since tokens can be exchanged for a variety of reinforcers
since Tokens serve as a reminder to teachers to reinforce
Tokens Steps to Setting up a Token Economy Pinpoint behaviors to be changed Select tokens Define and teach the desired behaviors Tokens, marbles in a jar, play money, points, etc. Select reinforcers Set token values Set the number of tokens that can be earned for the desired behavior.
Some target behaviors may have higher values than others based on
preferences of the teacher.
preferences Set reinforcer costs Construct a bank A menu should be posted that is visible to all students Set up a record-keeping system where point or token totals can be tracked Arrange a time for students to cash in tokens or points Daily or weekly based on teacher preference Contingency Contracting Involves the establishment of a written behavioral
contract between a child and caregivers regarding
the performance of specific target behavior and the
exchange of specific consequences.
exchange Towards Positive Behavior
Week: Goal(s) Day of the Week Monday
Friday Number of Times My Goal Was Met
(Use Tally) Teacher Signature or Initials Parent Signature or Initials Example of Collaborative Contingency Contract
Joe’s Desk Contract:
Date: December 6, 2004 I know that it is important that I keep my desk clean and organized in order to spend more
time on my school work and learn as much as I can. Miss Heier is going to help me do
this by writing this contract and having us both agree to it. My classmates will help by
checking in with me mid-day and helping me organize my desk.
I will have one classmate assigned to check in with me regarding the cleanliness of my desk
before lunch. Miss Heier will check my desk every day at 3:30 right before study hall
begins. If my desk meets all of the guidelines in my visual at the end of the day, I will
put a sticker on my contract for that day. If I earn 80% or 10 of my stickers by the last
day before winter vacation (December 22), I will earn a movie for my class that day.
There can only be 3 school days where I don’t earn my sticker to earn this privilege.
If I do not earn 10 of my 13 stickers, I will be choosing to use my recess time to practice
organizing my desk. This will happen on day 4 of not earning my sticker and every day
after that I do not earn my sticker until winter break.
________________________________ ______________________________ Goals of Reinforcement Programs
Goals Generalization (Transition) Refers to the degree to which a behavior change transfers to other
settings, situations, or behaviors, in addition to the setting, situation or
target behavior involved in the behavior change program
target Natural setting … the setting in which a behavior is most likely to occur or
should If wanting to increase “sharing”, teach this behavior within the environments
where students are expected to share
where Natural antecedents … events or situations that should act as natural prompts
or cues for a specific target behavior
or When the teacher is talking, reading to the class, or giving instructions, the
students should stop talking and listen.
students Stimulus Generalization Describes the degree of behavior change in other
settings or situations other that the training setting,
when no training occurred in the new setting.
when If, during a science class, the teacher reinforces a student
for reading directions on written assignments before asking
questions, and then, in math class, the student begins to
read directions before asking questions, the new behavior
(reading directions before asking questions) has generalized
from the science to the math class.
from Response Generalization Refers to the degree which a behavior change
program influences other behaviors in addition to the
target If the teacher develops a behavior change plan to decrease
physical aggression (the target behavior) and the child also
demonstrates a decrease in verbal aggression (not the target
behavior), then the behavior change plan shows a response
generalization. Maintenance Refers to the degree to which a behavior change is
maintained over time after intervention has been
completed Promoting Generalization and Maintenance Methods for promoting maintenance are similar to
those used to promote generalization
those When training is conducted with natural settings,
using natural antecedents and consequences, behavior
changes are likely to be maintained after artificial
stimuli and consequences are faded.
stimuli Methods Teach within settings where the behavior is likely to occur and within
multiple settings; avoid artificial training areas or pull-out training.
multiple Implement the behavior change program with a variety of teachers
across multiple settings
across Identify common elements between the teaching environment and other
environments within which behavior is to be generalized
environments Gradually shift from artificial stimulus controls to natural stimulus
controls that occur in the student’s natural environment
controls Shift from continuous to intermittent schedules of reinforcement as
soon as possible
soon Pair artificial reinforcers (tokens) with natural reinforcers and
consequences (social praise) provided within the natural
environment Phase out artificial reinforcers that are unlikely to be provided in
the natural environment
the Introduce delays in the provision of reinforcement that would be
likely to occur in the natural environment
likely Reinforce generalization and maintenance Other Reinforcement
“Tools of the Trade”
“Tools Homework Punchcard
Earn a punch for each day you complete your homework and have an adult
at home sign your assignment notebook. If you have earned 4 punches by
the end of the school week, you earn a free homework assignment coupon
and 10 minutes of extra recess on Friday!
Remember to do your homework!! Free Assignment Coupon! ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺
This entitles you to one free assignment. Turn in this coupon into your teacher and skip
an assignment! (May not be used on tests.)
Teacher Signature: _____________________________________
Date: ________________________________________ Computer Time Coupon! ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺
This entitles you to 10 minutes on the computer. This may be used during independent
work times or free time.
Teacher Signature: _____________________________________
Date: ________________________________________ Activities
1. Create a reinforcement assessment.
1. Include a description of the person whose behavior you are
assessing and the behavior(s) to be reinforced, and list at
least ten positive reinforcers.
1. The reinforcers should include a wide range of items and
They should not all be toys or edibles and should be documented
as to effectiveness and source of identification. Satiation needs to be considered in preparing your list, as
well as how natural and easy the reinforcement is to
administer. Design a token system, including at least six clearly
described reinforcers, for each of the following: 1.
1. A class of preschoolers;
1. A class of elementary students 1. A class of secondary students.
1. Explain the points that you have assigned for each of the reinforcers to
be obtained. The object of this activity is to allow you to identify
appropriate reinforcers for different age levels as well
as to decide on a hierarchy of reinforcer worth.
1. Behavior. Behavior is any act that can be observed and measured. It is synonymous with the term
"response." Seeing and counting acts can help individuals make objective decisions regarding the
occurrence of those acts.
occurrence Example: An internal state such as "sadness" is not observable and measurable; however, crying is a
behavior (observable and measurable) and is frequently associated with sadness.
behavior 2. Operant conditioning. In order to alter voluntary behavior, the events that follow should be
manipulated. Operant behaviors are emitted voluntarily and can be altered by the arrangement of
environmental variables to establish a functional relationship between any voluntary behavior and
the events that follow it, that is, its consequences.
the Example: When we are consistently late turning in an assignment, we are marked down a grade. There is a
definite relationship between the late assignment and the lower grade. By manipulating our behavior (i.e.,
turning the assignment in on time) we can control the consequence-receiving a lowered grade.
turning 3. Contingency. A contingency specifies the relationship between a behavior and the events that follow
3. Contingency contingency
it (that is, its consequences). Possible contingencies are to 1) present, 2) withdraw, and 3) withhold
events following each occurrence of the behavior to be changed (the target behavior). A commonly
used contingency is one that states that after each occurrence of a particular behavior, a certain
event should be provided.
event Example: A child 1) is given a sticker for finishing his work, 2) loses the sticker for not doing the
assignment, or 3) does not get to have recess if his work is not finished by 10:00 a.m.
assignment, 4. Positive reinforcer. A stimulus which, when presented following a behavior, strengthens that
behavior. Something is a reinforcer if it strengthens a behavior. A positive reinforcer is any
behavior which, when presented following a behavior, strengthens (increases the likelihood of
occurrence of) the behavior.
occurrence Example: A smile or praise might be a positive reinforcer for some people. 5. Positive reinforcement. A procedure that strengthens behavior by presenting a stimulus contingent
on the occurrence of behavior. Positive reinforcement is a procedure that strengthens a target
behavior (increases its frequency, rate, or duration) by arranging for the presentation of a stimulus
(a positive reinforcer) following the target behavior.
(a Example: Jane rewards herself with a dish of ice cream when she works out an extra twenty minutes three
times during the week.
times 6. Negative reinforcer. A negative reinforcer is an unpleasant (aversive) stimulus that, when terminated
or reduced as a consequence of a behavior, strengthens that behavior.
or Example: When one takes aspirin for a headache and it goes away, the likelihood increases that aspirin will
once again be taken to end future headaches. A child's whining may be a negative reinforcer if it increases
her parents' likelihood of sending her to her room to end the whining.
her 7. Negative reinforcement. Negative reinforcement is a procedure that strengthens a target behavior by
arranging for the removal or reduction of an aversive stimulus (a negative reinforcer) as a
consequence of that behavior. The critical word is "removal." Whereas in positive reinforcement a
stimulus is presented, negative reinforcement requires that a stimulus is removed.
presented, Example: Ted must finish all of his meal or he doesn't get any dessert. ...
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- Spring '11