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Unformatted text preview: NCATE Dispositions NCATE Two that we will always remember: BELIEVE ALL CHILDREN CAN LEARN SOCIAL EQUITY AND JUSTICE Increasing Appropriate Behavior: Increasing Reinforcements Quote of the Day Quote You’re braver than you believe, and You’re stronger than you seem stronger And smarter than you think! Christopher Robin to Pooh Reinforcement Reinforcement Any stimulus that maintains or increases the behavior exhibited Any immediately prior to the presentation of the stimulus immediately A consequence that follows a behavior that strengthens the behavior. Formally … The process in which the occurrence of a behavior is Formally followed by a consequence that results in an increase in the future probability of the behavior. probability Consequence must maintain or increase the behavior in terms of its rate, Consequence frequency, duration, and/or intensity frequency, If it does not, then the consequence is not considered to be reinforcement Simplistically … Any stimulus that maintains or increases the Simplistically behavior exhibited immediately prior to the presentation of the stimulus stimulus Positive Reinforcement Presentation of a stimulus following a behavior that increases or maintains that behavior that The “Grandma’s Rule” The “When you complete your dinner, you may have a When piece of chocolate pie”. piece Why use positive reinforcement in the Why classroom? classroom? An effective way of improving the overall An behavior of all students in the classroom behavior Must properly match reinforcements to the student Three types of Group-Oriented Contingencies (positive reinforcements) Type Independent Group-Oriented Contingency Definition Each student earns reward based on their own behavior Pros •No student is penalized for the behavior of anyone else Cons •Peer pressure is unlikely to be harnessed •Each student has access to rewards under exactly the same terms. Dependent Group-Oriented Contingency Interdependent Group-Oriented Contingency Reinforcement of entire group is contingent upon one student’s behavior Reinforcement of the group is contingent on the behavior of the whole class •The target student becomes “hero”. •Peers may root the target student on •Appropriate peer pressure which occurs naturally in the classroom is used to encourage positive behavioral choices •The target student may get negative attention if he/she fails to earn the reward. •Scapegoating may occur. •Students may blame one student for the class not earning the reward. •One student may sabotage earning the reward for the whole group. Negative Reinforcement Negative Removal of a stimulus following a behavior that increases or maintains that behavior increases Aaron is a 14-year-old learner with an identified learning disability. School has Aaron served as a constant source of frustration for him over the past several years. This is especially the case in math. He is in a prealgebra class and receives some tutoring and assistance from the resource teacher; but is struggling in the regular classroom. Upon receiving his problems to complete during class, he attempts a few and then becomes increasingly frustrated, shouting swearwords about how he thinks the work is useless resulting in an exchange of verbal jabs between him and his teacher, resulting in Aaron being sent to the principal’s office. teacher, Remember … the relationships among the type Remember of reinforcement, stimulus, and outcome for target behavior are as follows: target Reinforcement Stimulus Target Behavior Positive Presented Increases Negative Removed Increases Types of Reinforcers Types Primary Reinforcers Edibles … food and drink preferences Token … this category includes token reinforcers Token that can be exchanged for a specific reinforcer that is valued by the learner is Interest Inventory Interest Secondary Reinforcers Stimuli that are not naturally reinforcing Value learned by pairing with a primary reinforcer Example: When a preschool teacher pairs giving verbal praise (a potential When secondary reinforcer) with delivering a glass of juice (a primary reinforcer) to a young child, the verbal praise takes on some of the reinforcement value associated with the glass of juice. reinforcement Purpose is to fade out the use of juice as a reinforcer and Purpose fade in the value of verbal praise. fade Socially Valid Reinforcers Social … includes social praise, conversation, hugs, Social smiles, social attention, and eye contact. smiles, These can be used individually or within an entire class Tangible … preferred items such as toys, personal Tangible possessions, and clothing possessions, Activity … preferred activities enjoyed by the Activity individual within work, play, and leisure-time contexts contexts Tangible Stars Rubber stamps Check marks Points Toys Edibles Magazines Puzzles Social Verbal recognition Verbal Praise Activities Choice time Spend time with teacher Read a story Student of the day Pass out materials First in line Feed class pet Leader of the day Use computer Phone call home Run errands Note home Listen to tape Activity leader Identifying Reinforcers Identifying When constructing an intervention plan, it is important to list When those reinforcers that have been effective in the past those Perform a review of past educational records for past items that were used How to identify reinforcers for a specific learner … Ask the parents and family of the learner what he enjoys most … favorite Ask toy, activity, social amenity, or other. toy, Ask the learner what he enjoys most Provide the learner with choice Provide Allow him to select their preferred reinforcers from a reinforcer menu Present various items and allow them to choose Present Principles of Effective Reinforcement Principles Reinforcement must be contingent Clear and concise guidelines (rules) concerning classroom Clear behavior need to be established with contingencies being clearly explained to all learners. clearly Allows the learner to understand expectations and consequences Allows associated with desired behavior associated Contingent reinforcement A relationship between a response and a consequence in which the relationship consequence is presented if and only if the response occurs consequence Reinforcement needs to be immediate When a teacher asks a child to complete a task, the teacher When must administer the appropriate reinforcer immediately following performance of the behavior following Establishing operations will increase the value of the Establishing reinforcer reinforcer Deprivation Reinforcer more effective when an individual has been deprived of it Reinforcer for a substantial period of time for Satiation When a previously reinforcing consequence loses its value and is When therefore no longer reinforcing therefore Intensity of the reinforcer will result in more Intensity effective outcomes effective Individuals will be more likely to expend greater Individuals amounts of effort if the yield in terms of reinforcement is greater. reinforcement Intensity associated with the consequence could be: The enjoyment they derive from it The increased social attention that they receive The The generalized emotional and social fulfillment they The Schedules of Reinforcement Schedules Schedules Two major terms related to reinforcement Continuous reinforcement Schedule Intermittent reinforcement Schedule Continuous Reinforcement Schedule Occurs when a target response is repeatedly reinforced Occurs following its occurrence following The teacher praises Jake each time he attempts and completes a math The problem. problem. Most frequently used when learner is attempting to learn a new Most skill skill Easily used by parents and teachers alike Used when the goal of the instructional program is to increase Used reinforcement during these first learning stages. reinforcement Used until natural consequences associated with completion of Used the task successfully will become reinforcing enough the Intermittent reinforcement schedule Used during the fluency and maintenance building stages of Used learning learning Fluency … the ability of an individual to perform a skill or behavior Fluency with minimal or no assistance at a reasonably fast rate with few or no errors. errors. Promotes ongoing refinement of the skill and performance Promotes maintenance of the skill or behavior over time. maintenance Consists of four different types of schedules: Fixed ratio, variable ratio, interval, and variable interval Ratio schedules are associated with an average number of responses Interval schedules are connected to periods of time Fixed Ratio Schedule Consist of reinforcing a behavior contingent on an established number of Consist occurrences of that behavior (FR4, FR10) occurrences Reinforcing child every time behavior occurs. Reinforcing Continuous schedule. Very effective within classroom settings. Variable Ratio Schedule Reinforcement is delivered following an average number of behavior Reinforcement occurrences (VR3, VR10) occurrences Make sure not to “tip off” the learner as to when the reinforcement will be Make administered administered Can be used in school settings related to the performance of academic tasks Administer reinforcement based on a range of responses. Fixed Interval Schedule Consist of reinforcing a behavior after an established interval Consist of time has elapsed – Child reinforced following a specific interval of time Child Contingent on a target behavior occurring during the interval FI10 - every 10 consecutive minutes of appropriate behavior, child is FI10 given reinforcement given Variable Interval Schedule Reinforcement is delivered following an average interval of Reinforcement time VI10, reinforcing child an average of every 10 minutes Reinforcement Strategies Reinforcement Shaping Shaping Refers to the reinforcement of successive approximations of Refers a terminal behavior terminal Successive approximation … Successive Any intermediate behavior that is either a prerequisite component of Any the final behavior or a higher order member of the same response topography as the final behavior topography Applied incrementally as the behavior more closely resembles the Applied terminal behavior you are trying to teach terminal Chaining Refers to the performance of a series or sequence of Refers behaviors rather than just one independent behavior behaviors Involves a sequence of related steps or behaviors or discriminative Involves stimuli (SDS) and responses (Rs) that are linked together When children arrive home from school, their parents might have a When routine comprised of a sequence of behaviors that must be accomplished. routine Each activity can be taught individually or can be linked and taught as a Each sequence or behavior chain. sequence How does this apply to a school setting? Arriving at school and attending the first-hour class Before a chain can be taught, it is important to develop a task Before analysis analysis Task analysis … a method designed to break down a complex behavior Task into small components or steps into Can be used with academic skills, social skills, and functional self-help Can skills skills Steps to Task Analysis Observe others performing the skill Write down the essential steps of the task Perform the skill yourself, noting the chain of discriminative stimuli and Perform responses that comprise the task responses Validate the sequencing in a task analysis. Methods used to Validate the Sequencing in a Task Analysis Sequencing The behaviors required in the sequence are developed after observation of The others performing the task. others Consultations with experts or persons who are recognized for their abilities in Consultations performing the task are conducted performing Perform the task yourself to aid in refining the movements and sequence that Perform are required for optimal performance of the entire task are Sequence the steps in a task analysis in the same order as they will be Sequence performed performed Behaviors in a task analysis can be listed in order of difficulty proceeding from Behaviors less difficult to more difficult. less Types of Chaining Types Total Task Presentation Chaining Allows the student to attempt each step in the task analysis from Allows beginning to end beginning Teacher provides the necessary instructional assistance in the form of Teacher instructional cues (verbal, gestural, and physical prompts) as needed to complete the sequence of behaviors complete Used with such chaining as: Used Feeding oneself, using utensils, drinking from a cup, swinging a gulf club Feeding or tennis racket. or As student becomes proficient, teacher can begin to fade the use of As instructional cues. instructional Activity Activity Take one of the previous chaining activities Take and write the necessary instructional assistance in the form of instructions cues (verbal, gestural, and physical prompts) as needed to complete the sequence of behaviors. complete Forward Chaining Teaching each behavior link, starting with the first link and Teaching moving to the next link until all is taught moving May involve teaching more than one step at a time Backward Chaining Teaching each behavior in the link starting with the last Teaching link and moving in a descending order link Successful with such behaviors as dressing, grooming, and feeding Strategies Strategies Token Economy Is a symbolic reinforcement system. Is Children receive tokens for specific appropriate Children behavior, which maybe exchanged for objects or activities that have been identified as reinforcing. activities Reasons for Effectiveness of Token Economies Tokens or points can be given immediately to be exchanged Tokens for reinforcers later for Tokens or points act as visual evidence of the progress the Tokens student is making student The value of tokens is unaffected by the mood of the person The delivering the tokens delivering Students are less likely to satiate on any one reinforcer Students since tokens can be exchanged for a variety of reinforcers since Tokens serve as a reminder to teachers to reinforce Tokens Steps to Setting up a Token Economy Pinpoint behaviors to be changed Select tokens Define and teach the desired behaviors Tokens, marbles in a jar, play money, points, etc. Select reinforcers Set token values Set the number of tokens that can be earned for the desired behavior. Set Some target behaviors may have higher values than others based on Some preferences of the teacher. preferences Set reinforcer costs Construct a bank A menu should be posted that is visible to all students Set up a record-keeping system where point or token totals can be tracked Arrange a time for students to cash in tokens or points Daily or weekly based on teacher preference Contingency Contracting Involves the establishment of a written behavioral Involves contract between a child and caregivers regarding the performance of specific target behavior and the exchange of specific consequences. exchange Towards Positive Behavior Name: Week: Goal(s) Day of the Week Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Number of Times My Goal Was Met (Use Tally) Teacher Signature or Initials Parent Signature or Initials Example of Collaborative Contingency Contract Joe’s Desk Contract: Date: December 6, 2004 I know that it is important that I keep my desk clean and organized in order to spend more time on my school work and learn as much as I can. Miss Heier is going to help me do this by writing this contract and having us both agree to it. My classmates will help by checking in with me mid-day and helping me organize my desk. I will have one classmate assigned to check in with me regarding the cleanliness of my desk before lunch. Miss Heier will check my desk every day at 3:30 right before study hall begins. If my desk meets all of the guidelines in my visual at the end of the day, I will put a sticker on my contract for that day. If I earn 80% or 10 of my stickers by the last day before winter vacation (December 22), I will earn a movie for my class that day. There can only be 3 school days where I don’t earn my sticker to earn this privilege. If I do not earn 10 of my 13 stickers, I will be choosing to use my recess time to practice organizing my desk. This will happen on day 4 of not earning my sticker and every day after that I do not earn my sticker until winter break. ________________________________ ______________________________ Goals of Reinforcement Programs Goals Generalization (Transition) Refers to the degree to which a behavior change transfers to other Refers settings, situations, or behaviors, in addition to the setting, situation or target behavior involved in the behavior change program target Natural setting … the setting in which a behavior is most likely to occur or Natural should occur should If wanting to increase “sharing”, teach this behavior within the environments If where students are expected to share where Natural antecedents … events or situations that should act as natural prompts Natural or cues for a specific target behavior or When the teacher is talking, reading to the class, or giving instructions, the When students should stop talking and listen. students Stimulus Generalization Describes the degree of behavior change in other Describes settings or situations other that the training setting, when no training occurred in the new setting. when If, during a science class, the teacher reinforces a student If, for reading directions on written assignments before asking questions, and then, in math class, the student begins to read directions before asking questions, the new behavior (reading directions before asking questions) has generalized from the science to the math class. from Response Generalization Refers to the degree which a behavior change Refers program influences other behaviors in addition to the target behavior target If the teacher develops a behavior change plan to decrease If physical aggression (the target behavior) and the child also demonstrates a decrease in verbal aggression (not the target behavior), then the behavior change plan shows a response generalization. generalization. Maintenance Refers to the degree to which a behavior change is Refers maintained over time after intervention has been completed completed Promoting Generalization and Maintenance Methods for promoting maintenance are similar to Methods those used to promote generalization those When training is conducted with natural settings, When using natural antecedents and consequences, behavior changes are likely to be maintained after artificial stimuli and consequences are faded. stimuli Methods Teach within settings where the behavior is likely to occur and within Teach multiple settings; avoid artificial training areas or pull-out training. multiple Implement the behavior change program with a variety of teachers Implement across multiple settings across Identify common elements between the teaching environment and other Identify environments within which behavior is to be generalized environments Gradually shift from artificial stimulus controls to natural stimulus Gradually controls that occur in the student’s natural environment controls Shift from continuous to intermittent schedules of reinforcement as Shift soon as possible soon Pair artificial reinforcers (tokens) with natural reinforcers and Pair consequences (social praise) provided within the natural environment environment Phase out artificial reinforcers that are unlikely to be provided in Phase the natural environment the Introduce delays in the provision of reinforcement that would be Introduce likely to occur in the natural environment likely Reinforce generalization and maintenance Other Reinforcement “Tools of the Trade” “Tools Homework Punchcard Name:____________________ Week of:__________________ Earn a punch for each day you complete your homework and have an adult at home sign your assignment notebook. If you have earned 4 punches by the end of the school week, you earn a free homework assignment coupon and 10 minutes of extra recess on Friday! Remember to do your homework!! Free Assignment Coupon! ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ Student Name:________________________________________ This entitles you to one free assignment. Turn in this coupon into your teacher and skip an assignment! (May not be used on tests.) Teacher Signature: _____________________________________ Date: ________________________________________ Computer Time Coupon! ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ Student Name:________________________________________ This entitles you to 10 minutes on the computer. This may be used during independent work times or free time. Teacher Signature: _____________________________________ Date: ________________________________________ Activities Activities 1. Create a reinforcement assessment. Create 1. 1. Include a description of the person whose behavior you are Include assessing and the behavior(s) to be reinforced, and list at least ten positive reinforcers. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. The reinforcers should include a wide range of items and The activities. They should not all be toys or edibles and should be documented They as to effectiveness and source of identification. Satiation needs to be considered in preparing your list, as Satiation well as how natural and easy the reinforcement is to administer. administer. Design a token system, including at least six clearly Design described reinforcers, for each of the following: 1. 1. 1. 1. A class of preschoolers; class 1. 1. A class of elementary students 1. A class of secondary students. class 1. 1. Explain the points that you have assigned for each of the reinforcers to Explain be obtained. The object of this activity is to allow you to identify appropriate reinforcers for different age levels as well as to decide on a hierarchy of reinforcer worth. as Glossary Glossary 1. Behavior. Behavior is any act that can be observed and measured. It is synonymous with the term Behavior "response." Seeing and counting acts can help individuals make objective decisions regarding the occurrence of those acts. occurrence Example: An internal state such as "sadness" is not observable and measurable; however, crying is a behavior (observable and measurable) and is frequently associated with sadness. behavior 2. Operant conditioning. In order to alter voluntary behavior, the events that follow should be 2. Operant In manipulated. Operant behaviors are emitted voluntarily and can be altered by the arrangement of environmental variables to establish a functional relationship between any voluntary behavior and the events that follow it, that is, its consequences. the Example: When we are consistently late turning in an assignment, we are marked down a grade. There is a definite relationship between the late assignment and the lower grade. By manipulating our behavior (i.e., turning the assignment in on time) we can control the consequence-receiving a lowered grade. turning 3. Contingency. A contingency specifies the relationship between a behavior and the events that follow 3. Contingency contingency it (that is, its consequences). Possible contingencies are to 1) present, 2) withdraw, and 3) withhold events following each occurrence of the behavior to be changed (the target behavior). A commonly used contingency is one that states that after each occurrence of a particular behavior, a certain event should be provided. event Example: A child 1) is given a sticker for finishing his work, 2) loses the sticker for not doing the assignment, or 3) does not get to have recess if his work is not finished by 10:00 a.m. assignment, 4. Positive reinforcer. A stimulus which, when presented following a behavior, strengthens that Positive stimulus behavior. Something is a reinforcer if it strengthens a behavior. A positive reinforcer is any behavior which, when presented following a behavior, strengthens (increases the likelihood of occurrence of) the behavior. occurrence Example: A smile or praise might be a positive reinforcer for some people. 5. Positive reinforcement. A procedure that strengthens behavior by presenting a stimulus contingent 5. Positive procedure on the occurrence of behavior. Positive reinforcement is a procedure that strengthens a target behavior (increases its frequency, rate, or duration) by arranging for the presentation of a stimulus (a positive reinforcer) following the target behavior. (a Example: Jane rewards herself with a dish of ice cream when she works out an extra twenty minutes three times during the week. times 6. Negative reinforcer. A negative reinforcer is an unpleasant (aversive) stimulus that, when terminated 6. Negative negative or reduced as a consequence of a behavior, strengthens that behavior. or Example: When one takes aspirin for a headache and it goes away, the likelihood increases that aspirin will once again be taken to end future headaches. A child's whining may be a negative reinforcer if it increases her parents' likelihood of sending her to her room to end the whining. her 7. Negative reinforcement. Negative reinforcement is a procedure that strengthens a target behavior by 7. Negative Negative arranging for the removal or reduction of an aversive stimulus (a negative reinforcer) as a consequence of that behavior. The critical word is "removal." Whereas in positive reinforcement a stimulus is presented, negative reinforcement requires that a stimulus is removed. presented, Example: Ted must finish all of his meal or he doesn't get any dessert. ...
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