History Exam 1 note compilation

History Exam 1 note compilation - History Exam 1 note...

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History Exam 1 note compilation Timeline: from the ancient Greeks to the present day Thomas Aristotle Ptolemy Aquinas Galileo us -——|————|———|-——————————|-————|-— 350 BC AD 150 1250 1610 2011 Timeline: the Scientific Revolution —Copernicus— —–Galileo–—||——-Newton—— -—|<———|———>||<-——|-——>|-—|<-—————>|-— 1473 1543 1564 1610 1642 1687 1727 Pre-Socratic Greeks: Thales (c. 575 BC), Miletus in Ionia – all is water o Everything is made of one substance that can take different forms in different contexts Pythagoras (c. 530 BC), S. Italy – all is number o Little is known about him, but he had a cult-like following o Behind what we see in the world is number, ultimate reality is not physical object, but numerical patterns Parmenides (c. 475 BC), S. Ital – all change is illusory o What is is, what is not is not and cannot come to be Democritus (c. 420 BC), Macedonia – all that exists is atoms moving in a void o The real things aren’t changing, they’re hard particles that never change, only their position Plato (427-347 BC), Athens – ‘Theory of forms,’ geometry People had to have studied geometry before they could go to Plato’s academy Aristotle Pay attention to your sense and experience. You have to understand both matter and form to understand its material expression In the greek world he was knows as one of plato's students, not a dominant thinker. It was not until the middle ages that aristotles works were taken as authority. Known as scholasticism Aristotle was from Macedonia, associated with King Phillip of Macedon and was tutor of Alexander the Great Wrote about 150 works, in the forms of dialogues; what we have left are lecture notes taken by his students What survived was compiled in 750 B.C. In Plato's academy, Aristotle studied dialectic and had a high regard of greek geomaters. Wanted to emulate this. Start with a solid premises and follow with: Major Premise (a general statement): all men are mortal Minor Premise (a particular statement) all men are mortal: Socrates is a man Therefore Socrates is mortal
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Aristotle wanted to focus on how to get the general statements Agrees with the reasoning, but downplayed the role of mathematics in explaining reality This is the major difference between Plato and Aristotle Also, Aristotle didn't believe in the realm of forms that Plato believed in He is trying to get at the essence of things: what makes a tree a tree; what makes anything what it is He wanted to present everything in a structure Earth's natural place is in the center of the universe All knew it was round, all compact the earth Water falls to the earth, and because the earth is the very center, rocks can sink through water Air goes up because its pulling away from the earth
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History Exam 1 note compilation - History Exam 1 note...

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