review notes - Review: the roots of the Scientific...

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Review: the roots of the Scientific Revolution I. Main themes: a. Aristotelian natural philosophy b. Ptolemaic and Copernican astronomy c. Transmission of ancient learning d. Experimentalism and natural magic II. Aristotle (c. 330 BC, Athens): four elements: earth, water, air, fire; Heavens and Earth; nested spheres; natural place and natural motion. a. Earth is the center of the universe the earthy substance go to the center of the universe. If you moved the earth it would fall back to the center of the universe b. 4 elements that form a nested group: i. earth and water have natural gravity (falling) ii. air and fire having natural levitate (going away) c. natural place/ natural motion (recording) d. a sharp distinction between the heavens and the earth, mainly the sub lunar sphere. Where we live and have the 4 elements. You can change one element from one to another. e. The heavens are perfect and unchanging, this is very different than life on earth. In the heavens you never have anything new appear in the heavens. They are made of the 5 th element, aether, it is perfected in itself. The only motion it can have is around and around the center because it has an internal repeating cycle. f. Cosmology (natural philosophy)v. Astronomy: i. Aristotle’s natural philosophy is explaining things to you that you already know, it is not a method of explaining new things. It explains the causes of things. Astronomy wasn’t interested in explaining what the heavenly bodies were, but predicting their motion, eclipses, conjunctions of planets, etc. III. Ptolemy (c. AD 150, Alexandria): Almagest : geocentric model with epicycles; ‘save the phenomena’ b. The heavenly bodies were conceived as aether, and crystalline spheres,
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review notes - Review: the roots of the Scientific...

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