Unformatted text preview: By facilitating the multiplication, dissemination, preservation, and comparison of texts, printing helped transform the material basis of European intellectual life in 1500s. The Protestant Reformation In 1517, Martin Luther posted his ‘theses,’ bringing to a head longstanding doctrinal and political tensions within the Catholic Church. His ideas spread rapidly through printed books and pamphlets; set off schisms and later religious wars; led to split between northern and southern Europe. Catholic Church responded by launching Counter-Reformation : Council of Trent (1545–63), tightening of doctrine and discipline; founding of Jesuit order. Continual wrangling over who should interpret Scripture, and how, fed an undercurrent of skepticism in the later 16th c. that affected attitudes toward all knowledge, including science. Varied responses to such skepticism became a major theme in the Scientific Revolution....
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- Spring '11
- History, Protestant Reformation, The Printing Press, later 16th c., Indies. Established research