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SR-07-Vesalius - — Otto Brunfels Herbarum vivae...

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The new anatomy: Vesalius’s De Fabrica Anatomy : study of structure of (human) bodies. Reached high level in ancient Alexandria (c. 280 BC), based on human dissections, but stagnated after such dissections were banned under Romans. Galen (AD 129–216) brought together medical and anatomical knowledge in comprehensive way, but based in important points on dissections of animals. Greek and Roman scholars and physicians compiled natural histories of plants, animals, and minerals, but difficulty of making accurate copies meant that over time the images became increasingly schematic, as did anatomical images; most devolved into little more than stick figures. Human dissections were reintroduced with Church approval in Europe in late 13th century; conducted mainly to provide ‘live’ illustrations for texts by Galen and the Italian physician Mondino (1270–1326). Advent of printing in mid-1400s stimulated work in natural history and anatomy; often illustrated with woodcuts, later with copper plate engravings:
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Unformatted text preview: — Otto Brunfels, Herbarum vivae eicones (‘Portraits of living plants’), 1530–36. — Leonhard Fuchs , De historia stirpium (‘On the history of plants’), 1542. — Conrad Gesner, Historiae animalium , 1551–58. Andreas Vesalius (1514–1564), Belgian-born anatomist and physician. Studied at Paris, performed many dissections, established high reputation at early age. In 1537 began teaching at Padua, the leading medical university of the time. Collaborated with artists to produce detailed anatomic charts, followed by his great 1543 book De Humani Corporis Fabrica (‘On the Fabric of the Human Body’). Beautiful woodcuts preserved and disseminated results of his many dissections; gave anatomical knowledge a secure foundation on which to build. Vesalius focused on close description rather than theory; followed Galen on overall structure and functioning of body, but brought out points where Galen’s reliance on animal dissections led to errors about human anatomy....
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