101F10Chapter1

101F10Chapter1 - The Science of Psychology What is...

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The Science of Psychology
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What is Psychology? The scientific study of the behavior of humans and other animals. Textbook definition: The science of behavior and mental processes 1.Observable behavior: Such as speech and physical movement 2.Mental processes: Such as remembering and thinking, which cannot be directly observed
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Four Perspectives Two emphasize internal factors Biological perspective Cognitive perspective Two emphasize external factor Behavioral perspective Sociocultural perspective
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Perspectives Emphasizing Internal Factors Biological perspective Views our physiological hardware (especially the brain and nervous system) as the major determinants of behavior and mental processing Cognitive perspective Emphasizes how our mental processes, such as perception, memory, and problem solving, work and impact our behavior
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Perspectives Emphasizing External Factors Behavioral perspective Explains that we behave as we do because of our past history of conditioning by our environment Sociocultural perspective Focuses on the impact of other people and culture on our behavior and mental processing
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The Biological Perspective Biological psychologists study the involvement of the various parts of the brain and nervous system on our behavior and mental processing e.g., our sense of sight vision is initially processed in the back of our heads (in the occipital lobes of the brain) e.g., separate brain regions are involved in the production and interpretation of speech e.g., different brain chemicals are involved in controlling different types of mental processes
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The Cognitive Perspective Cognitive psychologists study how we think and use knowledge. This includes studying how we. .. remember (or forget) things, perceive objects and sounds, learn new skills, understand written and spoken language, make decisions, solve problems, etc.
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Behavioral Perspective The behavioral perspective concerns how we acquire behaviors in response to certain conditions Two main types of learning Classical Conditioning e.g., advertising: link an attractive stimulus with what’s being sold—makes us feel positive towards the product e.g., phobias Operant Conditioning We are more likely to repeat behaviors that have favorable consequences, and less likely to repeat those that have nasty consequences. e.g., how a teacher responds when you ask a question in class
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The Sociocultural Perspective The sociocultural perspective concerns how behavior is influenced by social context, environmental cues, social pressures and cultural influences. e.g. the Kitty Genovese case: She was brutally attacked and murdered while trying to enter her apartment building in New York City. Many of the people living in the building heard her screams
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101F10Chapter1 - The Science of Psychology What is...

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