101F10Chapter2

101F10Chapter2 - Neuroscience Prepared by J W Taylor V Neurons and Glial Cells Neurons transmit information throughout the nervous system Glial

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Neuroscience Prepared by J. W. Taylor V
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Neurons and Glial Cells Neurons transmit information throughout the nervous system Glial cells support neurons in their work dispose of waste products keep chemical environment stable provide insulation
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The Structure of a Neuron Dendrites fibers that project out of the cell body receive information from other neurons The cell body contains the nucleus of the cell other biological machinery to keep the cell alive The axon single branch out of the cell body transmits ‘messages’ The axon terminals are at the end of the axon send messages to a different neuron
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The Structure of a Neuron
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Communication within the neuron, communication is electrical when a neuron ‘fires’, the electrical signal travels along the axon. between neurons, communication is chemical neurotransmitters released at the axon terminals bind to receptors on the dendrites of ‘adjoining’ neurons.
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The Electrical Impulse Information received from other neurons is either: excitatory — making it more likely that the current neuron will fire inhibitory — making it less likely that the current neuron will fire If the excitatory inputs sufficiently outweigh the inhibitory inputs then an action potential is triggered the action potential is a change in the balance of electrical charges inside versus outside the neuron. This wave of depolarization sweeps along the axon. The action potential is an “all or nothing” event. The neuron either fires, or doesn’t fire. It cannot half-fire.
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The Electrical Impulse The myelin sheath is an insulating layer of fatty white substance that encases the axon allows electrical message to be transmitted faster within the neuron 1 m/s in unmyelinated axons (2.2 mph) 100 m/s in myelinated axons (224 mph) multiple sclerosis damage to the myelin sheath slows electrical impulses
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Communication Between Neurons Axon terminals contains sacs of neurotransmitters Between the axon terminals of one neuron and the dendrites of another neuron is a small space called the synaptic gap . The neurotransmitters are released into this gap they can then move across the synaptic gap where they bind with the receptors on the next neuron's dendrites depending on the neurotransmitter, they may have an excitatory or inhibitory effect
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Neurotransmitters 1. Acetylcholine (ACh) is involved in both learning and memory and muscle movement 2. Dopmaine impacts our arousal and mood states, thought processes, and physical movement 3. Serotonin and norepinephrine are neurotransmitters involved in levels of arousal and mood, and play a major role in mood disorders such as depression 4. GABA ( gamma-aminobutyric acid ) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the nervous system; glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter 5. Endorphins are a group of neurotransmitters that are involved in pain perception and relief
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This note was uploaded on 06/19/2011 for the course PSY 101 taught by Professor Laporte during the Spring '08 term at SUNY Plattsburgh.

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101F10Chapter2 - Neuroscience Prepared by J W Taylor V Neurons and Glial Cells Neurons transmit information throughout the nervous system Glial

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