101F10Chapter03

101F10Chapter03 - Sensation & Perception Sensation versus...

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Sensation & Perception
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Sensation versus Perception Sensation How our sense organs receive information from the environment Perception How we interpret this information
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White’s Illusion
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Brightness Position Position
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Shepard’s tables
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Motion aftereffect After being exposed to a ‘strong’ motion stimulus, we perceive the opposite motion in a stationary scene Explained by adaptation in the neurons that respond selectively to moving contours (a.k.a. motion detectors ) Web demo
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Illusions in other senses Tactile illusion Two-pencil illusion Auditory illusions Ever descending tone An auditory illusion of a tone that continuously descends, while not getting any lower. Ever accelerating beat “Sometimes behave so strangely” repeating the same phrase has a strange effect
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Sensation versus Perception Such illusions illustrate that our perceptual processes interpret the sensory information Sensory information “manipulated” to create our mental representation of the world around us
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How the Physical World Relates to the Psychological World The Detection Question The Difference Question The Scaling Question
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The Questions 1. The detection question is concerned with the limits on our ability to detect very faint signals How intense does a light have to be for us to see it? How intense does a sound have to be for us to hear it? Example thresholds Hearing : the tick of a watch in quiet conditions at 20 feet Vision : the flame of a single candle at 30 miles distance on a dark night Smell : one drop of perfume in a 6 room apartment Taste : one teaspoon of sugar in 2 gallons of water Touch : the wing of a fly falling on cheek from 1 cm.
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The Questions 2. The difference question is concerned with our ability to detect very small differences between stimuli What is the smallest difference in brightness between two lights that we can see? What is the smallest difference in loudness between two sounds that we can hear?
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The Questions 3. The scaling question is concerned with how we perceive the magnitudes (intensities) of clearly detectable stimuli What is the relationship between the physical intensities of stimuli and our psychological perceptions of these intensities?
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The Detection Question In a detection study (e.g., sound detection) The participant listens to a series of trials for each trial the sound signal is either absent or present the participant is required to say ‘ yes’ if she hears the sound, or ‘ no’ if she doesn’t This is tested with the loudness of the sound (in the sound-present trials) set to a range of intensities
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Theoretical and Observed Absolute Thresholds
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Absolute threshold Absolute threshold is the minimum amount of energy in a stimulus that is detected 50% of the time
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Four Possible Outcomes in a Signal Detection Study Present Absent “Yes” Hit False Alarm “No” Miss Correct Rejection Observer’s Response Signal
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This note was uploaded on 06/19/2011 for the course PSY 101 taught by Professor Laporte during the Spring '08 term at SUNY Plattsburgh.

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101F10Chapter03 - Sensation & Perception Sensation versus...

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