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cancerspring11 - CAREOFTHEPATIENT WITHCANCER SusanHampson...

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CARE OF THE PATIENT  WITH CANCER Susan Hampson
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WHY STUDY CANCER? Second most common cause of death in USA Occurs at ALL ages Leading cause of death in people less than 85 yrs Huge impact on patient and family 
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NURSE’S ROLE Help individuals to Understand, reduce, eliminate risk for cancer  development Comply with cancer care regimen Cope with effects of the disease AND its treatment
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HOW DOES CANCER DEVELOP? Any/all cells in body can be affected Failure of regulatory mechanisms occurs Involves 2 major cellular dysfunctions Defective cellular proliferation (growth) Defective cellular differentiation
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CELLULAR GROWTH:  NORMAL vs. ABNORMAL Normal Dynamic equilibrium  Contact Inhibition Orderly regulation  and differentiation Abnormal LACK dynamic  equilibrium LACK of contact  inhibition LACK of orderly  regulation
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CELL DIFFERENTIATION:  NORMAL vs. ABNORMAL Normal Orderly process Mature cells perform  specific processes Differentiation is  permanent Abnormal Protooncogenes  become oncogenes Mutation occurs in  tumor suppressor  genes Protooncogene  unlocked
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BENIGN VS. MALIGNANT  NEOPLASMS Benign Encapsulated Well differentiated NO metastasis Rarely recurs  Cells LIKE parent  cells Slight vascularity Grows by expansion Malignant  Rarely encapsulated POOR differentiation CAN metastasize Recurrence VERY  possible Cells NOT like parent  cells Grows by expansion,  infiltration
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TYPES OF CARCINOGENS Chemical Often found in environment Drugs can contribute Radiation Can cause cancer in almost any body tissue UV radiation has strong association with skin cancer Viral  Cell invaded by virus; virus initiates malignant  activity
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DEVELOPMENT OF CANCER:  INITIATION Mutation in genetic structure of cell Can be inherited or via exposure Irreversible process BUT cell is NOT yet a tumor  cell Cell cannot yet replicate and grow
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DEVELOPMENT OF CANCER:  PROMOTION Proliferation of altered cells occurs IS reversible Number of altered cells increases; more  mutations likely Promotion factors include life style activities Latent Period: period of time between initial  genetic alteration and clinical evidence of cancer
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DEVELOPMENT OF CANCER:  PROGRESSION Signaled by increased growth rate, increased  invasiveness, spread to distant sites Site of metastasis can be determined by site of  original tumor  OR Can be unpredictable
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ROLE OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM Distinguishes self from non-self Cancer cells elicit an immune response
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