diabetesrevspring11

diabetesrevspring11 - DIABETESMELLITUS SusanHampson...

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DIABETES MELLITUS Susan Hampson
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WHAT IS DIABETES MELLITUS? Chronic, multi system disease Affects metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins,  fats Involves  Abnormal insulin production  Impaired insulin utilization Both of the above
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ETIOLOGY/PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Immune system Environment Virus  Type 2 Diabetes No association with immune response Genetic basis exists
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TYPES OF DIABETES MELLITUS Type 1 IDDM, Juvenile onset Type 2 NIDDM, Adult onset Prediabetes  Gestational  Secondary 
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MAINTAINING NORMAL BLOOD  GLUCOSE Insulin  Basal level released continously  Additional insulin released when a meal is taken Counter regulatory hormones Oppose effects of insulin Cause production and release of glucose from liver Decrease movement of glucose into cells Include glucagon, epinephrine, growth hormone,  cortisol Together insulin and these hormones maintain blood  glucose levels in the normal range (60-99 mg/dl)
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TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS One of the major types of DM Accounts for about 10% of diabetics Peak occurrence between 11 and 13 years Beta cells of pancreas are destroyed Person has NO endogenous insulin
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SYMPTOMS OF TYPE 1 DIABETES  MELLITUS Weight loss Fatigue Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain Three P’s ( Can occur with type 2 also; more  common in type 1) Polyphagia (excessive hunger) Polydipsia (excessive thirst) Polyuria  (excessive urine output) The presenting problem can be diabetic ketoacidosis!
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TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS One of the major types of DM Accounts for about 90% of patients  Age of person usually over 35 years Vast majority of type 2 diabetics are obese Person has SOME endogenous insulin Insulin amount is insufficient or tissues do not use  insulin
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SYMPTOMS OF TYPE 2 DIABETES  MELLITUS Can be asymptomatic Gradual onset of symptoms, can take years.  Organ damage can be occurring. Fatigue Weight gain Recurrent infections Recurrent yeast infections Prolonged or poor wound healing  Vision changes
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A WORD ABOUT METABOLIC  SYNDROME It is a group of abnormalities that act together to  increase a person’s risk for cardiovascular  disease and diabetes Metabolic syndrome includes: Insulin resistance Elevated insulin levels High triglycerides, high LDL, low HDL Hypertension 
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DIAGNOSING DIABETES MELLITUS Fasting blood glucose > 126 mg/dl Random blood glucose > 200 mg/dl Two hour OGTT level > or =  200 mg/dl after a 
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diabetesrevspring11 - DIABETESMELLITUS SusanHampson...

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