Sudan's Fractured Internal Politics

Sudan's Fractured Internal Politics - Introduction...

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Sudan’s Fractured Internal Politics Introduction For the past several years, significant U.S. attention has been focused on the crisis in  Sudan's   Darfur region , in which roughly three hundred thousand have died and nearly three million have  been displaced. Meanwhile, continued violence in South Sudan--along with uneven  implementation of the fragile peace brought by the 2005  Comprehensive Peace Agreement  (CPA)  and an impending 2011 referendum on allowing South Sudan to break away--raises fears that  the country's civil strife will expand to disastrous levels. The country's major opposition parties  boycotted Sudan's presidential election scheduled in April 2010--part of the first multi-party  general elections in twenty-four years--citing concerns of irregularities in  voter registration and   insecurity in Darfur (     SudanTribune)     .With much of the opposition boycotting, controversial  President Omar al-Bashir received 68 percent  of more than 10 million valid ballots  and won  another five year term. U.S. foreign policy has treated   Darfur and South Sudan as separate issues .  But experts say both  situations can be traced to Khartoum's central government, which has historically maintained  control of the country's periphery through divide-and-rule policies. There is wide disagreement  about the best policy course for the United States to pursue in Sudan, but analysts agree that any  effective policy will have to consider Sudan's internal politics and the center's relationship with  its periphery. Khartoum and its Periphery Sudan is the largest country in Africa, approximately the size of Western Europe. Since its  independence in 1956, it has been roiled by civil war almost continuously. This war was initially  between northern Sudan and the south, which objected to its isolation and lack of development  relative to the north. Following the military coup that brought Bashir to power in 1989, his  National Congress Party (NCP) spurred an Islamist revolution that empowered the center's  security and business interests at the expense of rural areas. In response, groups from each  peripheral area of Sudan entered conflict with the central government.   Although a series of  agreements have been enacted to patch relations between the government and these periphery  territories--the CPA, the Darfur Peace Agreement, and the East Sudan Peace agreement--" all   suffer from lack of implementation ," according to a 2009 briefing paper from the International  Crisis Group.   The government maintains that peripheral areas in the south were underdeveloped  because of the long civil war. In a 2009 article for 
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This note was uploaded on 06/21/2011 for the course PSC 102 taught by Professor Sharlach during the Spring '11 term at University of Alabama at Birmingham.

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Sudan's Fractured Internal Politics - Introduction...

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