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Microsoft PowerPoint - Introduction to DNA mutation [Compatibility Mode]

Microsoft PowerPoint - Introduction to DNA mutation [Compatibility Mode]

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DNA mutation and evolution : Mutation and adaptation Types of mutations DNA repair mechanisms By S. M. Rafigh 2011
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Mutation and adaptation: Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829) Proposed “inheritance of acquired traits” ~1801; induction by the environment; also known as transformism or transmutation . Ideas largely ignored or attacked during his lifetime. Never won the acceptance and esteem of his colleagues and died in poverty and obscurity. Today Lamarck is associated with a discredited theory of heredity (but Lamarckism persisted until 1930s/1940s). afii59761;afii59760;.afii59762;
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Charles Darwin (1809-1882) Heritable adaptive variation results from random mutation and natural selection (1859, The Origin of Species ). Contrary to Larmarck, inheritance of adaptive traits does not result from induction by environmental influences. But differential survival (selection) and heritable variation (originally arising from mutation). Years following Darwin and rediscovery of Mendel resulted in controversy (until 1930s/1940s) about the relative importance of mutation and selection. Largely resolved by theoretical and empirical work of Fisher, Haldane, and Wright (see chapter 22 lectures). afii59761;afii59760;.afii59763;
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Experimental test of Lamarck’s “inheritance of acquired traits” Salvador Luria and Max Delbrück (1943) An E. coli population started from one cell should show different patterns of T1 resistance depending on which theory is correct. 1. Adaptive theory states that cells are induced to become resistant when T1 is added; proportion of resistant cells should be the same for all cultures with the same genetic background. 2. Mutation theory states that random events confer resistance to T1; duplicate cultures with the same genetic background should show different numbers of T1 resistant cells. afii59761;afii59760;.afii59764;
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Mutation Substitution, deletion, or insertion of a base pair. Chromosomal deletion, insertion, or rearrangement.
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