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Anatomy 2 Final Study Guide

Anatomy 2 Final Study Guide - Final Quiz(Friday May 6th...

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Final Quiz (Friday, May 6 th ) 12:00 noon -3:00 pm Chapter 17: Endocrine System (*)Know the source, target cell, and effect of each hormone: OT, Insulin, Glucagon, TSH, PTH (*)What are master glands? What are tropic hormones? (give examples) (*)Cell Types of Anterior Pituitary and the regulation of their hormonal secretion: (Corticotropes, Thyrotropes, Gonadotropes, Lactotropes, Somatotropes) (*)Alternative Roles for TRH , Somatostatin (Hypothalmic somatostatin vs. Pancreatic Somatostatin) , and GH (*)Endocrine vs. Paracrine vs. Autocrine hormones and provide examples of each (*)Anatomy of Pituitary Gland (be able to sketch and label) (*) Delivery of Hypothalamic hormones to Pituitary Gland: Hypothalmo- Hypophyseal Tract vs. Hypophyseal Portal System (*)Pineal Gland: (role of melatonin, what is SAD ?, function of suprachiasmatic nucleus) (*)Thymus Gland : (Function of thymopoietin and thymosine, DiGeorge Syndrome/Congenital Thymus Aplasia) (*)What is Involution? (give examples) * Thyroid gland …. * Synthesis of T3/T4 : Role of Tg “Thyroglobulin”; structures of T1, T2, T3, and T4 .. (role of exocytosis; pinocytosis; lysosomes) Do not mix bet. lysosomes and lysozyme. * Transport of T3/T4 : Role of TBG “Thyroxine-Binding Globulin” (do not mix bet. Tg and TBG) * Mode of Action of thyroid hormones : Their receptors act as a “Transcriptional Enhancer Protein” * Negative Feedback Inhibition in Regulation of T3/T4 synthesis: (the Hypothalmus-Pituitary-Thyroid gland axis) (when T3/T4 levels are too high) (*)Conditions related to Thyroid Gland (Hypothyroidism, Goiter, Myxedema, Endemic Goiter) (*) C-cells of Thyroid gland : function of calcitonin
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(*) function of Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) from Parathyroid gland (*) Adrenal Gland : Adrenal cortex (the 3 zona’s), adrenal medulla, capsule 1) Zona glomerulosa: minerocorticoids; know function and target of aldosterone 2) Zona fasciculata: glucocorticoids: function of cortisol; what is gluconeogenesis 3) Zona reticularis : gonadocorticoids; androgens, estrogen, DHEA (Dihydroepiandrosterone), Estradiol (know the functions of the hormones); apocrine and merocrine sweat glands - basic structure of all steroid hormones (*) Mode of action of ACTH and Glucagon : use of cAMP as a second messenger. (*) Mode of action of AgII; OT; ADH : use of IP3/DAG pathway (Inositol Triphosphate/DiAcyl Glycerol) as second messengers; and Ca++ as 3 rd messengers. (*) Renin-Angiotensin -Aldosterone cascade : function and source of renin and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE); Ag I (Angiotensin I); and Ag II (*) Kidney : Sketch a “nephron” (afferent and efferent arterioles, glomerulus, Bowman’s capsule, Proximal and distal convoluted tubules, descending and ascending limbs of the loop of Henle, loop of Henle, Collecting Duct (has receptors for ADH) - cross section of a kidney tubule: mode of action of aldosterone (Na + /K + ATPase and Na + ion channel proteins); the movement of water and sodium.
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