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Obesity is caused by energy imbalance

Obesity is caused by energy imbalance - 3 Obesity is caused...

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3 Obesity is caused by energy imbalance. • (1) How Many Calories Do I Need Each Day? o Energy output o – basal metabolism o Sum total of energy expended on all of the involuntary activities needed to sustain life o Excludes digestion o Affected by: • - Voluntary activities • - thermic effect of food • 5%-10% of a meal’s energy is expended in stepped-up metabolism in the 5+ hours after a meal • factors that effect BMR o gender – o age o physical activity o body size and weight o body composition o growth o fever or stress raise BMR o environmental temperature o fasting/starvation and malnutrition lower BMR o tyroxine – thyroid hormone that is a key metabolism regulator more thyroxine = higher BMR • (2) Why Did I Eat That? o Eating behavior seems to be regulated by mechanisms that stimulate eating & mechanisms that signal the body to cease or refrain from eating o “Go” Signals – hunger and appetite o - Hunger • Sensation that signals a need for food • Occurs roughly 4-6 hours after eating • Triggered by: Contracting empty stomach & empty small intestine ghrelin –stomach hormone produced between meals Chemical & nervous signals in the brain • Other factors influencing hunger: Nutrients in blood stream - Appetite The psychological desire to eat Can be experienced without hunger Illness or stress may result in the loss of appetite in a person in physical need of food
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