Quiz 2 was/is about argument vs Explanation. for that (test 1) you have to ask the question - Is there something in dispute? if answer is Yes then it is an argument, if the answer is No then it is an explanation. (test 2) you can also ask the question - Is there a simple statement of fact? if answer is Yes then it is an explanation, if the answer is No then it is an argument. this is how I taught you in class, but you can also study from book Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking by Mathew J Van Cleave, Chapter 1 from page1 to page 10 for this Quiz 2 Remember, both arguments and explanations can have premise indicators or conclusion indicators. In the book substitution test is suggested for identifying arguments, substitute another similar word for premise indicator or conclusion indicator, if the meaning of the sentence still remain the same then it is an argument, if meaning or sense changes then it is an explanation. While if you ask the, Why? question, and you get an answer then it is an explanation. do the exercise on page 9 and 10 for practice however, I suggest you do the way I taught you, (test 1) and (test 2) as shown above, that is the easier and better method to identify arguments and explanations I have not yet designed the final exam, but will do it soon, then I will tell you and the whole class a study guide for it. 1.1 What is an argument?
This is an introductory textbook in logic and critical thinking. Both logic and critical thinking centrally involve the analysis and assessment of arguments. “Argument” is a word that has multiple distinct meanings, so it is important to be clear from the start about the sense of the word that is relevant to the study of logic. In one sense of the word, an argument is a heated exchange of differing views as in the following: Sally: Abortion is morally wrong and those who think otherwise are seeking to justify murder! Bob: Abortion is not morally wrong and those who think so are right-wing bigots who are seeking to impose their narrow-minded views on all the rest of us! Sally and Bob are having an argument in this exchange. That is, they are each expressing conflicting views in a heated manner. However, that is not the sense of “argument” with which logic is concerned. Logic concerns a different sense of the word “argument.” An argument, in this sense, is a reason for thinking that a statement, claim or idea is true. For example: Sally: Abortion is morally wrong because it is wrong to take the life of an innocent human being, and a fetus is an innocent human being. In this example Sally has given an argument against the moral permissibility of abortion. That is, she has given us a reason for thinking that abortion is morally wrong. The conclusion of the argument is the first four words, “abortion is morally wrong.” But whereas in the first example Sally was simply asserting that abortion is wrong (and then trying to put down those who support it), in this
example she is offering a reason for why abortion is wrong.