Exam_2_study_guide - The challenge of crossing cultural...

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The challenge of crossing cultural boundaries , 4 risks of international business , ( ), commercial risk currency financial risk , - - country risk cross cultural risk a situation or event where a cultural miscommunication puts some human value at stake - - ethnocentric orientation using our own culture as the standard for , judging other cultures we have a tendency to view the world primarily , from our own perspective entail the , , belief that one s own race religion or ethnic group is somehow superior to the others - - - polycentric orientation a host country mindset where the manager develops a greater affinity with the country in which she or he conducts business - - geocentric orientation a global mindset where the manager is able to understand a business or market , without regard to country boundaries , openness awareness of diversity , across cultures appreciate the best that humans have created regardless of where - globalization is leading to a convergence of cultural values ( common norms and expectations are ) emerging - people everywhere are appreciative if , you treat them with respect try to , speak their language and show genuine interest in them ( . ), . Culture as an iceberg Exhibit 5 2 p 130 - : culture is likened to an iceberg , above the surface certain , characteristics are visible but below , unseen to the observer is a massive , , base of assumptions attitudes and values that strongly influence decision , , , making relationship conflict and other dimensions of international business - we are conditioned by our cultural , / idosyncracies but unaware that 9 10 of our culture makeup that exist below the surface - : : 1 cultural makeup that is visible fine , , , arts drama literature classical music - : 2 cultural makeup that we are aware : , , , of humor popular music religion , , , cooking courtship practice etiquette , , rites of passages folk dancing diet - : 3 cultural makeup that we aren t : , aware of family relationships gender , , roles nonverbal communication - , superior subordinate relationships . preference of cooperation vs , - , competition decision making patterns , - eye behavior methods of problem , , solving conversational patterns concept of beauty , , National professional and corporate , . culture p 134 - employees are socialized into three cultures - . : , , 1 National culture nationality ethnicity , , , , gender religion social institutions social class educational systems - . , , 2 Professional culture academe business , , , banking engineering computer programming , , legal medical military - . : 3 Corporate culture influenced by its product portfolio and age of the company - To what extent is a particular behavior attributable to national culture? Hard to determine where the corporate influence begins and the national influence ends , . - Hofstede s research on culture pp 137 139 four independent dimensions of national culture o : individualism versus collectivism describes whether a person functions primarily a an individual or within a group , in individual societies ties among people are relatively loose and each person tends to - , focus on their own self interest prefer , individualism over group conformity
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