02-ch9-Mendel1(2)

02-ch9-Mendel1(2) - Chapter 9 Patterns of Inheritance...

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Chapter 9 Patterns of Inheritance Gregor Mendel 1822-1884 “The Father of Modern Genetics”
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artificial selection -- selection by plant and animal breeders of individuals with certain desirable traits Before Mendelian genetics, plant breeders operated under the following assumptions: Each parent contributes equally to offspring = mostly correct “Hereditary determinants” blend in offspring = mostly incorrect heredity
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character -- observable feature - e.g., flower color, pea shape trait -- particular form of a character - e.g., white vs. purple, round vs. wrinkled heritable trait -- passed on from parent to offspring (via DNA) Mendel chose for his experiments: characters with well-defined contrasting traits true-breeding varieties (e.g., two white flower parents produce 100% white flower offspring)
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self-pollination -- one plant reproduces itself by fertilizing its own ova with its own sperm carpel stamen(s)
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parental generation (P) -- plants providing & receiving pollen (Mendel performed reciprocal crosses) first filial generation (F 1 ) -- offspring of parental cross (Mendel allowed this generation to self-pollinate) second filial generation (F 2 ) -- offpring resulting from self-pollination of F 1 generation
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hybrid -- offspring of two different varieties monohybrid cross focus on only one character two true-breeding parental lineages differing in this character are crossed in the P generation resulting F 1 generation is allowed to self-pollinate (producing F 2 generation) Mendel’s first experiments involved monohybrid crosses
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P 1 F 1 100% purple offspring F 2 ~75% purple offspring
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P 1 F 1 F 2
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From the results, Mendel called the traits dominant vs. recessive dominant allele -- determines the organism’s appearance recessive allele -- no noticeable effect, but can be passed on “blending” hypothesis was refuted by these experiments S s Which pea flower color is dominant? How would we abbreviate these alleles? P p
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eukaryotic chromosome (DNA wrapped around proteins) gene -- unit of hereditary information (segment of DNA) allele -- alternative form of a gene; codes for a specific trait A A a a organism has two copies (one on each homologous chromosome ) recall that meiosis will send only one allele to each gamete
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homozygous -- (diploid) individual contains two copies of same allele heterozygous -- (diploid) individual contains two
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02-ch9-Mendel1(2) - Chapter 9 Patterns of Inheritance...

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