05-ch10-translationWES

05-ch10-translationWES - What is the genetic material? What...

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What is the genetic material? What is its structure? How is it copied? How is it expressed? (in Eukaryotes)
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Genetic information flows in one direction. .. transcription -- assembly of RNA (polymer from nucleotide monomers) along a template DNA strand translation -- assembly of polypeptide chain (from amino acid monomers) using 3 types of RNA
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RNA structure differs from DNA. .. phosphate group ribose sugar nitrogenous base Uracil vs. Thymine in DNA RNA molecule is a single strand
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differences between RNA and DNA structure 1) single strand vs. double 2) different sugar in backbone 3) pyrimidine base Uracil replaces Thymine
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review formation of Hydrogen bonds between complementary base pairs Cytosine pairs with Guanine Adenine pairs with Thymine (or Uracil)
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Fig. 10.7 there are 20 amino acids; these are the subunits from which all protein chains are made in protein synthesis, each amino acid specified by a codon (specific sequence of 3 nucleotides on mRNA) each amino acid has several codons (redundancy) genetic alphabet = 4 base pairs protein alphabet = 20 amino acids
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genetic code is nearly universal among organisms (alternative to Campbell et al. text Fig. 10.8a)
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for each gene, only one of the two DNA strands is transcribed mRNA contains the triplet code from which the sequence of amino acids is determined a real gene can contain thousands of nucleotides. .. methionine lysine phenylalanine stop production a real protein can contain (at least) hundreds of AA’s
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transcription initiation elongation termination for each molecule of RNA, only one DNA strand is transcribed (the template strand ) but which one varies according to the gene RNA polymerase binds to promoter sequence of DNA, unwinds DNA & assembles strand of RNA nucleotides http://vcell.ndsu.nodak.edu/animations/transcription/movie.htm
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05-ch10-translationWES - What is the genetic material? What...

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