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06-ch11-gene-exprWES

06-ch11-gene-exprWES - Chapter 11 The Control of Gene...

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Chapter 11 The Control of Gene Expression Dolly (1996-2003) Royal Museum of Scotland gene expression -- how genetic information flows from genes to proteins (genotype to phenotype)
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(Chapter 3 – the molecules of cells) Four kinds of molecules are characteristic of living things... proteins carbohydrates lipids nucleic acids most of these are polymers constructed by the covalent bonding of smaller monomers
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protein -- one of the most fundamental building substances of living organisms; a long-chain polymer of amino acids functions -- structural support, protection, movement, transport, catalysis, defense, regulation four levels of protein structure : 1. primary 2. secondary 3. tertiary 4. quarternary
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Amino Acids Recall that a protein’s functional shape depends on four levels of structure Protein Structure, Enzymes
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Amino Acids primary structure -- order in which specific amino acids are assembled in a single polypeptide chain primary structure of polypeptide chains... words created by the alphabet of 20 amino acids
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secondary structure -- regular, repeated spatial patterns in the structure of a polypeptide chain two basic types: α helix & β pleated sheet
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tertiary structure -- parts of the polypeptide chain are bent to form folds that result in a complex 3-D shape
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quarternary structure -- a functional protein consists of several subunits (with tertiary structure) put together
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example hemoglobin -- found on red blood cells; transports Oxygen to body tissues four subunits assembled to form functional protein O 2 molecule binds to hemoglobin, breaking ionic bonds and changing its quarternary structure when O 2 is released, hemoglobin resumes its shape
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high temperatures, acidic conditions, etc. denaturation -- loss of a protein’s 3-D structure... and consequently, loss of its biological function usually irreversible (e.g., hard-boiled egg) Environmental conditions affect protein structure denature your proteins!
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